The above Ad will no longer appear after you Sign Up for Free!

Cable and plug types for stage jumpers

Discussion in 'Lighting and Electrics' started by ship, Feb 23, 2004.

  1. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Installation of Plugs on Cable some notes on cable and plugs.

    Plug Types and Brands: I have divided the installation of general stage/entertainment plugs into 8 general categories for simplicity in use. In each category there are many brands and type of plug which can require different methods of application. The general types will be covered in each category. Otherwise, most plugs are similar in construction and type which follow the NEMA code.
    General principals about the Nema Code are if it starts with a number designating it’s type, it’s a straight blade plug. If it has a “L” before the number, it’s a twist lock plug. Following the type is a dash and the plug’s amperage rating.
    A 5-15 NEMA plug is a U-Ground Parallel blade 15 Amp “Edisonplug. A L5-15 plug is also a 15 amp plug, but it’s twist lock and what we would call mini-twist in style. A 5-20 would be a 20 amp Edison plug which is the same only with it’s neutral prong perpendicular to the hot which is in normal position. A 5-15 plug will fit into a 5-20 receptacle but will not work in the reverse. This prevents overloading of circuits. It’s a good idea if you have something such as a high amperage air compressor which is still 120v, or other equipment with power ratings over 1800 Watts/15 Amps to install 5-20P plugs on them.
    A 5-15P plug is normally constructed using the same materials as a 5-20P but installed into a receptacle only rated for 15 amps it is likely you can burn something up in the circuit be it wiring or receptacle, long before the circuit breaker pops. You will also note the “P” following the amperage rating. This as opposed to “R” designates Plug verses Receptacle. Than it’s just a question of knowing if it is a cord mount verses panel or wall mount receptacle much less single verses duplex. Details Details, but for the most part, if you understand the basic NEMA system for plugs you will get along. Twist verses straight blade, Classification of plug, a Dash (-) than the amperage rating and male verses female.

    The NEMA system uses a base set of standards be it hook or barbed pin in verses pin out, or the general size of pin and it’s spacing in preventing one plug from plugging into another when not safe. A 6-15 plug for instance is very similar to a 20 Amp Edison plug only it’s “6" is opposed to the “5" of a Edison plug is different in the nomenclature, that and the hot and neutral blades are aligned and parallel to each other so there is no chance such a plug will fit within a Edison outlet. Or more importantly you cannot plug a Edison fixture into a 6-15 power source. 6-15 Outlets are 250v rated connectors normally used for two hot phases of power instead of one hot and one neutral. Such plugs are useful for high power motors, air conditioners and moving lights. A 6-20 receptacle given it also does not have a neutral will have what on- it’s hot perpendicular to the hot which is in normal position of a neutral on a 125v Edison plug. In other words, this connector is the exact opposite as the 125v 20 Amp Edison plug. Such 15amp connectors will either fit a 6-15 or 6-20 plug into it, the same as the Edison above, only it’s two phase of power with ground and no neutral thus the opposing prongs which will not work with the 125v equipment. Remember that a “5" is for 125 volt (120v) and a “6" is for 250 volt (208v). Nema really is fairly simple.

    Add a twist lock plug on the above and you have the entertainment industries main lighting cable plugs and receptacles. The L5-15 is the original stage standard for power in twist lock, as with a L6-15 for 208v power. Such plugs are the same relative size as a Edison plug but were not able to hold up in amperage rating to that of larger power requirements and the L5-20 and L6-20 series of larger twist lock plug was gone to at a higher cost. During the 80's and early 90's twist lock was the way to go over stage pin cable because it would remain locked together unlike stage pin plugs that were yet to be improved to a more safe and easy to use style. Stage pin manufacturers such as Union Connector at one point even tried to keep up with this locking practice with the development of locking stage pin connectors which never lasted that long in the industry - too many problems with them and you had to have both male and female locking or the plugs would not lock. Anyway, after time it was discovered that twist lock plugs would have safety problems if you were not able to pull them loose, much less sometimes some gorilla would attempt to twist them loose but in the wrong direction which would short out the plug in their hands. That and with weather tight boots over the plugs for out door shows, often there would be a vapor seal in both mechanically and by suction ensuring the connection would never come apart safely.

    Today the standard has gone back to stage pin and other than for 208v purposes such as moving lights, Stage Pin connectors are to be used in all modern installs over twist lock again. Before such standards came out, the stage pin connector developed out of the un-grounded connector just as a Edison plug grew out of a ungrounded one - the NEMA 1-15. In other words, you can plug in both a ungrounded and ground two pin plug into a grounded receptacle. The 15 amp twist plug was also developed and used in 1970's theater and entertainment for use in the new concept of plugs that would stay locked. Such a mini-twist standard remains in debate with the 208v moving light power in the industry though the 125v/15Amp version is much less used. Given small cords and lower amperage loads in moving lights there is some merit to using a smaller plug on the gear rather than having a plug that weighs more than the fixture’s entire cable in weight, plus one with a strain relief that will grip the wire adequately in concept. On the other hand, with the advent of 1,800w and twofering equipment, some even lower amperage moving light 208v loads are better using the more unified 20 amp L6-20P plugs in matching up the rating of the plug with the load. The plug weight and size in comparison to the cord, verses the amperage is a ongoing silent debate in which both standards are used dependant upon who you are. Unfortunately a 20amp twist lock plug will not fit into a 15 amp twist lock receptacle so many 208v adaptors are necessary in the industry as with twist to stage adaptors and every other type of adaptor.

    In the end, there are five main plugs used in the industry. For 125v it’s 15amp twist which is getting more rare but still found, than 20amp twist that is used much more but no longer the standard or parallel blade Edison plus some ungrounded Edison plugs used in some places but not really rated for industry use. For 208v you will find a complete mix and match of 15 and 20 amp twist with 20amp twist being more common, and no parallel blade Edison types in service except perhaps in some bars. Above this is the Stage Pin plug which is rated for 120v use at 20 amps and 208v at 10 amps. It is most used in the theater under 125v and has found use in moving lights with switchable voltage between 120 and 208v.

    Beyond these main plugs there is the Non-Nema 125/250v plug, the L6-30 for follow spots, that the L10, L14 and L21 series plugs for various two and three phase applications with and without a neutral in powering up small dimmers and power distribution units. The L21-30 three phase with neutral and ground plug being the most common for small AC distribution units. There is lots more types and styles of plug in use from the ML-2 that I use on my flexi-flash units, to various 50 amp plugs. Just a question of the need and purpose of those using the plug. Plus what is available cheap in many cases.

    Cable Types and Materials: There are three base types of stage cable with subcategories to all. By code, all stage cable is required to be either heavy duty rubberized or stage feeder cable of two types, but it depends upon what classification of the code your application falls under as to how closely you have to follow these rules.

    Type S. This is the main stage cable, it has a thick rubberized/neoprene jacket which makes it heavy duty Hard Service Cord as required so it is highly damage resistant to the more industrial abuses it will receive on stage such as use in pendant situations. It has two or more stranded conductors with a woven cotton, paper, plastic fiber, fiberglass or jute between the insulated conductors to make it round and add strength. This cable will normally have a right hand twist to it with one revolution per foot when new. In general, type S cable is rated for 600 Volts which can become important in certain situations, and it’s rated for 90°C. in temperature.
    As a general classification for this grade of cable I term it as type SO in having a double digit nomenclature for all of it. You can get grade SO even S alone, but more common types will be SOOW or SOW. The “S” stands for Rubberized Neoprene/thermoset or similar materials rubber like in construction. The first “O” stands for Oil Resistant outer jacket. The Second “O” stands for Oil Resistant also but the inner conductors are also oil resistant. “W” Stands for Water Resistant. Water resistant and oil resistant cable in general is no more in cost and a much better value to ensure the cable will not rot or be adversely effected by what chemicals and conditions it is exposed to. Note, it is resistant to these things but not water or oil proof. Should you cable become dirty with oil or be left in water or similar things, it will still be effected by it. In general, this type of cable has a 7 to 10 year life span under normal all the time usage. It has been known to last up to 20 years and more but at that point the inner conductors will begin to break down and oxidize causing a higher resistance, heat and voltage drop.

    Any type of cable is required to have it’s grade, gauge and brand printed on it once every foot unless very specialized in type. Once these markings printed on or molded into the cable are removed, you are required to get rid of the wire by code as it is no longer serviceable. In more realistic conditions, no more than 60% of the cable should have it’s identification removed. Excessive wear on the cable’s jacket is often an indication that the inside conductors or insulation is also about shot. Overall, in high school theater, you should not be using anything other than SO grade cable. This means other than for powering up your drill on stage, you must not be using those orange extension cords or any other form of junior insulated cable to power the lighting equipment.

    Type SJ. You are allowed to use junior jacketed cable on stage but only in lengths three feet and under such as in a twofer or distribution tail. This cable however is allowed to be used with truss supporting it in temporary entertainment wiring such as for rock concerts, so it gets a bit grey with what type of cable you need to use in an assembly hall, stage, verses concert hall or convention center. This in addition to specific uses of each where SO wire is required over SJ.

    Type SJ wire has a much thinner outer jacket than SO but otherwise is rated for the same load rating and resistance types. It’s available in SJ, SJO, SJOW and SJOOW with the above descriptions. In addition to these types, it is also available in a thermoset which is Thermoplastic Elastomer instead of Thermoset/rubberized Neoprene making it up. Such cable will have a SJ designation directly followed by a “E” or "T" for SJE/SJT even SJEOOW grade. In addition to SE grade, SJ cable is commonly available in a SJT grade which is completely thermoplastic and not rubberized in texture. This is the major difference between junior grade cables, how it’s constructed and what it’s temperature rating is. Thermoplastic cable is rated for less in temperature than SJ or SJE wire, it also will show stress/bending cracks with age or exposure to UV light, sooner than the above. This type of cable is frequently used for low wattage fixture wiring or equipment wiring but not general service power cord. SJE wire is designed to be a cost effective alternative to the rubberized neoprene SJ thermoset types. How similar the enhanced product is to rubberized cord depends much on the manufacturer. Coleman for instance as a manufacturer makes a almost similar textured wire to rubber with the same temperature rating. The conductors while still plastic have the suppleness of rubber.
    The main limiting factor of plastic wire verses rubberized wire is the rubberized wire while it’s insulation will break down at the same certain 90C temperature, it will not melt away until a much higher temperature yet is reached, even than it will often become brittle. On the other hand, the plastic types might be a little more rot resistant. SJT and SJE insulation at the rated temperature melts away exposing conductors. It is also harder to repair and frequently will not coil up as well especially when cold. For stage or industry usage, SJE might seem a value, but in the long run normal SJ wire will probably last longer. Under normal conditions, SJ cable can be expected to last about 3 to 5 years with 10 to 15 years being on the outside of it’s service life. Such cable is cheaper in initial cost, but once you figure in labor and replacement, SO wire is more economical where maximum cable weight is not a factor given you do not have to use the heavier wire.

    Type SC: Flexible Stage and Lighting Power Cable. This is the type of wire designed for stage usage but it’s size starts at 8AWG and gets larger after that. Anyone saying you have to use SC cable on stage and nothing else needs to re-read the NEC above a superficial reading of what is required and where.
    Mostly this type of cable is used for high amperage loads feeding dimmers and distribution equipment in #2 thru 4/0 size. This type of cable has a very heavy duty, extra hard duty rating to it and is very damage resistant but normally single conductor wire. Same basic rating as welding cable or SO, but far heavier jacket and thicker strands to it which will not break as easily. Do not use grade SO or welding cable on stage for loads larger than 60 amps or for any single conductor above cable. It will not cool properly nor be damage resistant enough. Such grades in welding use are intermittent power not as constant. Such welding cable will be cheaper per foot but is defiantly to be avoided.

    Grade SC replaces type W feeder cable. Both are acceptable for stage usage but type W has a double layer of insulation separated by a braided fiber. This extreme heavy duty construction while extreme in damage resistance will at times especially in short lengths but large sizes, not allow a CamLoc plug to twist and lock into position due to it’s braiding and thickness of insulation. SC cable will provide sufficient insulation and still allow some flex and twist to lock. Type W cable if still available should be avoided for anything other than permanent installs or it is likely especially as a short rack to rack jumpers, your cable will untwist from it’s locked position and cause a safety hazzard. Welding cable also has the disadvantage of being smaller and more numerous strands of wire - much easier to break causing heat. Welding cable as well as SO on single conductor cable rips off in chunks when snagged. Definately not something you want to be around.

    Marking your cable: This step can take as much time as doing the actual wiring if not even more, and can be just as important to do well and properly. Marking even the least important piece of gear adds a certain amount of pride and professionalism into it beyond the utility purposes of designating ownership and details such as length and type about it. It’s gear you have enough pride into owning and calling yours, you would take the time to make it so and wire properly. Such gear that is yours and you took the extra time in marking you also don’t take for granted.

    You don’t allow crew members to drop connectors, you don’t allow people to hot patch with it. Pride in your materials is shown in many ways, part of it is in taking the extra time to say it’s yours. When I build cable for theaters, or even wire up plugs onto fixtures, my primary question after how soon do you need it is always do you have any label you would like me to install onto it? For our largest customer we even printed up some labels on heat shrink for them, it was not overly expensive but certainly impressed the customer we would do such a thing. You can be sure any other suppliers would not be taking the time to purchase and install your markings and color code on what you buy, at best your cable will be provided with a length of clear heat shrink so you can mark your own cable, or if you specifically ask them to they might as long as you provided the materials and sometimes extra labor cost.

    I have even gone so far as to create a logo, company name and description for places without one, to which it is a extremely pleasant surprise which makes what I do stand out and the service more valuable. I look at it this way, I don’t want your cable. When shows come back, they always have other people’s gear in them as well as our own. That gear I can identify as belonging to someone else, gets sent back at our cost as a courtesy that normally is only one sided. Between all the broken gear and new gear I’m tasked to make, I don’t have time to be marking someone else’s gear as mine to the extent of taking off the Sharpie or paint marker initials of the old owner and electrical tape rings off the cable when I have no idea of who CS might be as it were.
    Than there is the question of compatibility and quality. Sure free gear since it can’t be sent back is free gear, but than I am liable for any gear someone else wired that I put on the shelf given it lives up to my standards in the first place. If it does not it’s trash.

    Even if it’s only something with markings designed and printed up on paper, than double sided taped to a electrical tape backing than covered with clear heat shrink. Installing markings on your gear somehow is the industry standard, it’s only a question of how lazy or lax you are with making it well marked enough so that if your gear winds up somewhere across the country you stand the chance of getting it back even if they had never heard of you before.

    But we don’t have guests or other productions in our theater, why bother marking it with the theater’s name and phone number? Pride in your gear and equipment. Even if the maintenance staff never “borrows” your gear, even if you don’t do shows in other rooms and forget things, there is a difference you will feel between a stack of cable with peeling off electrical tape markings and something with good markings that you installed and last with your company name and other easily perminantly installed markings on it.

    If you have cable that you don’t want to walk out the door with visitors, or is left behind at shows, than you had at best mark it with who it belongs to. If you want to have cable that is easy to determine how long it is than you had at best mark your cable. Electrical tape might work, but just as frequently just peels off.

    Some tips: avoid pvc based heat shrink, go with the Polyolefin types. Keep your markings 5" or less with the optimum size being 3" for the markings. Lengths of markings over 5" tend to break down with flexing too easily. Colored electrical tape works but frequently will suffer from the tape getting warm and creeping unless good quality and under heat shrink. A better method might be to have your heat shrink supplier print up your company name and phone number along with a logo on colored heat shrink to match the color of your cable length. Such pieces of heat shrink are available in colors to match your cable type designations or colors, or a cheaper solution since you have to buy in bulk amounts, would be to get all of them in the same color than just use a stripe of electrical tape color next to it to designate length.

    3/4" Expanded 3:1 heat shrink seems to work best for this since it will allow the heat shrink to fit cable sizes from 12/3 SO to many microphone or data cables - even with fitting over the plugs to them. If your data cable is smaller than 1/4" OD. Than you have the option of either using a filler under the heat shrink to expand it, using a smaller size of heat shrink and taking off the plugs or purchasing a 4:1 heat shrink to cover all applications for it, but dealing with a very thick tubing once fully shrunk.
    If you have sufficient budget, there is all kinds of heat shrink on the market. Up to 4:1 heat shrink that will start expanded in 4" dia, than shrink down to 1" at a cost of about $10.00 per foot. Such heat shrink is useful for replacing labels on Socopex multi-cable even. Companies such as Heat Shrink .com have developed a line of better quality heat shrink specifically for the sizes needed on stage, and of a quality that will not yellow or crack with age. Stuff you can slip over some types of molded Edison plugs, than shrink down to the size of SJ wire, etc.
    Heat shrink such as this wears and cuts up with time and abuse, but at least you don’t always have to live with it or take the plugs off to replace it. Another option you have is to use adhesive under the heat shrink to bond it to the wire and markings. 3M rubber/neoprene adhesive #2141 works well in bonding heat shrink to cable as long as it's fresh or it will at times bubble up under the heat shrink because it's too thick, it when old will also turn your stuff yellow/amber in color. A search for a all around clear adhesive would be the best option. The idea is that the adhesive will bond the shrink tubing to the cable so there is no chance with flexing and abrasion the heat shrink will re-expand slightly than slip off your markings, or it will not get little cuts in it also exposing your markings.

    Should your markings be especially abused such as on a wrench that lives in a bag of bolts, you can purchase clear adhesive lined heat shrink which will make the heat shrink especially damage resistant especially if adhesive is added to the tool surface to bond with the hot melt glue on the heat shrink.
    Bucky likes this.
  2. Joren_Wendschuh

    Joren_Wendschuh Member

    Likes Received:
    Holy Crap.

    I hope you dont mind, if I print this out, giving full credit to you, and, and place it in my compilation of electrical, lighting, stage design, set building, etc, binders of information.
    This is an AWESOME resource, Thank you very much for this!!
  3. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Print away but always remember that what I am writing down is my observations and details about the code I remember and fairly well understand - at least I think I understand enough about. It is not the word on cable or plugs as everyone has their own interpretation of what the NEC actually means to them, much less what is reality. I tried SJE cable for instance, while Coleman brand seemed to be better than others, I still went back to the normal rubberized SJ cable. Other people might have different opinions beyond cost on said cable. Some might also rather the wire melting down so you can physically see what has been exposed to too much heat, verses what has lots of heat but does not show any damage in the case of grade SJ.

    Than there is the grey area. What you can get away with or use in general without problems. Can you use SJ cable in the control booth or for clip lights back stage for instance? From my interpretation of the NEC even where I work we break the rules by using junior grade cable on cable drops or along floors. The crew chiefs bitch and moan that I would keep the heavy cable in stock, on the other hand, it’s the stuff they are supposed to be using on the floor or anywhere else not supported by the truss. It’s in stock but not used much properly. What’s the difference between a box truss and a truss first electric than? If you have a rock concert in a theater which system of cable are you forced to use? Lots of grey area, what I outline is a very general guideline for cable. If in school, you should be using the SO wire. If not it’s a major grey area.

    On plugs something I forgot with the Union plug was that between the wires, tinned wires and even the wire washer that others might be able to come up with a better history of, any of them once the strain relief fails will tend to unscrew the screw terminal holding them down. Wire is wrapped around the screw in a clockwise way so as the screw it tightened it will draw the wire into the terminal rather than push it away as it gets tighter. Problem comes in and a problem that is much more simple than settling of any conductors is once the strain relief fails, all the tension on the cable is held be the terminals screws. Once the wires pull, the screws also will loosen causing a high resistance heat connection that will heat up causing the insulation over the conductors to fail, and one that can burn up on it’s own with arcing in the loose connection.

    Simple and something of important detail I did not think of at the time, I’m sure amongst many details I did not understand or consider thus this is a single person’s view on cable plugs and installation, but not the Law as it were. If you can learn from what I write, great that is the purpose, but still and always seek out other channels for learning and practice. Once you learn from me and others, than from books an practical experience you will be better than most in the industry in becoming able to study your own observations and forming your opinions to pass on to others. People taught me, I pass it and what I add to it on just as they did.

    Hope it helps but it’s not a law or absolute standard. Others on all I write are asked for in gaining a more broad sense of what is really going on or the history of it.
  4. Joren_Wendschuh

    Joren_Wendschuh Member

    Likes Received:
    Yes, I understand that it isnt the 'law', but Mr Brian Ship, what it *IS* is what you remember from the years that you have worked in industry. While it would still be a good idea for anyone to go out and read the NEC's applicable parts, when doing something for a public venue (or even more so for a private venue,because there wont be anyone there to double check your work, such as an 'inspector'), your postings really help understand the way the 'code speak' if you will, relates to real life applications.
    Wow that totaly sounds like I'm brownnosin. lol, Twasnt ment that way.

    How would you like me to cite your postings here, so that sometime, someone could possibly use your work to backup a primary source in a paper or a proposal or something of the like?
    Thanks again!!
  5. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Thanks for the brown nosing anyway. I tend to laugh and relate to the Stapels commercial where the office pogies bribe the office supples person with donuts. How real to life with me and more especially my boss who in the end decides what is available for their shows. Primary source, yea my observations on the things I note would qualify for that, I just wish more people would add to the record with their own observations. My point, I appreciate the thanks, but it's sole and not whole again my point. Such things I post needs other observations to validate or argue to make that primary source balanced. I'm or was at least was working on my own book on lamps. Primary sources and experience, especially those that speak the non-technical are of a premium, but with them you get sources such as Frank Wood (many know of and is famous in his own way good and bad) or books like "Stage Lighting in the Boondocks", that even in my earliest days I will not have attempeted some things advocated in it. In the end, primary sources have to be blananced against a volume of sources or they in themselfs are invalid and often crackpots. I might not be but do openly admit my methods for doing things are while well thought out and usually proper, more than can be expected by everyone to hope to follow as more than the info given and a goal.

    Hope it helps. On wire types, I have been collecting notes on it for a few years now out of code and tech electric books from the 1930s to now. In other words, it the notes include something like three different versions of asbestos wiring plus one similar to it but not it. Plus silk and rayon wiring types you won't otherwise see. I did not post such infor because it was not on topic and a very long list of just data.

    As for citing me in a paper, I have a steady income. It's a good pedegree should it be required to make me an expert, yet still I learn something new every day and don't consider myself more than a lazy bodger of tinkering around with stuff or sitting all day down to wire stuff and analyze what I'm doing and how to improve so I won't see the stuff again as soon thus the cable repair tips.

    On proposals, anything that improves tech and safety is my and all of our responsibility to pass on. If you need my pedagree again as can at times be useful off line it's yours, otherwise as always, I understand what I advise is possibly the optimum standards. That's what they are posted for as a standard. Use away, but remember dead wood and what works so far usually works so take little steps. Doing a formal proposal sometimes helps, usually with the bean counters just frustrates you in the end. Took years to install my system here, I'm a company man so I have years however. Weigh how much you can reasonably change for the better with what you most need to change. SunSu something like pick your battles and choose them well. All I can say. I would love to see others try my methods and gain stuff from what I write, but learning is best, as something to keep in the back of your head is enough.

    Anyway print, post, use away as you can. Hope it helps, I did not have such things given out thus you have the advantage and I hope you in the end improve upon what's laid down.

    thanks by the way.
  6. Mayhem

    Mayhem Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Ok Joren - Whilst Ship may kill me for doing this, here is the Vancouver method of referencing Ship's initial post:

    Shipowski B, [2004 February 23] Installation of Plugs on Cable some notes on cable and plugs. [online] [access 2004 February] Available:

    Before you commit this to file, we will need Ship to verify that he is happy with this and that I have spelled his name correctly.

    I, like you, think that information of this standard deserves acknowledgement. Besides, if you are writing a paper, being able to reference your source of information is essential. If your school/college doesn't use the Vancouver style for referencing, your library will be able to tell you the appropriate method.

  7. Joren_Wendschuh

    Joren_Wendschuh Member

    Likes Received:
    Mayhem-Thank you, That should work 'well enough' for what I need...
    Yeah, Definetly, Ill wait till Ship verify's that :p
    Thanks again man!

    Ship-Actualy, I was considering your post, a 'secondary source'... that I would use to back up a primary source, being a book, or something else... Well, I guess secondary isnt the word... Maybe an opinionated primary source, that can help backup / validate, or invalidate another primary source...

    the "best" way to learn, to get ideas, is to take many, many sources and combine them into one big congomerate, where everything that agrees is used, and the stuff that doesnt, is kind of thrown out... its hard to explain...

    Interesting... any other books that you would recomend reading?
    this "Frank Wood" charicture sounds interesting... I'll check out this "Stage Lighting in the Boondocks" too... should be some interesting readings...

    Thank you, Some of this information works out very nicely for a "capstone" project I'm doing for my senior project right now... It also helps me, because our school is totaly stripping the old systems (sound, lights, rigging, stage, etc) out, and replacing them. The man who is working with the archetcts is a damn good friend of mine, and has requested my input on just about all aspects of the design, looking for things notneeded, things that would be better in a different way, etc.

    Thanks again.
    Its great having contact with people who know so much... Its such a great learning tool.
  8. Mayhem

    Mayhem Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    You are welcome. Just thinking however that the correct method would be to use Ship's online name "Ship" as the reference source. Although, I think that it is more appropriate to credit the information to his real name. However, I am not 100% sure on this so you should probably run this past a librarian or the person supervising your paper. I have never referenced anything in which the author posted under a nickname.

  9. Joren_Wendschuh

    Joren_Wendschuh Member

    Likes Received:
    hehe, I wish it was just a paper... its defiently a large, full year project that I'm working on, that has a presentation aspect to it also, besides the actual doing of the project.

    Ill run it by my local librarian... see what they say... Thanks.
  10. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Books? Here is my starting list. Also it's B. Shipinski or Brian Shipinski, and I'm not a Mister yet. Too young ever to be a Mr. proper.

    1) Electrics:
    ****** American Electricians’ Handbook, 13th ed. by Terrell Croft; McGraw Hill - N.Y. 1996
    ISBN: 0-07-013936-9 This book is larger than Audels Handy Book of Practical Electricity
    (My Current Electrical Bible,) has more technical information than it - greater depth if such a thing is possible, and costs a lot, but is well worth it for anyone who wants to know the most precise details about such things as motors etc. It is really long, and specific reading it is a challenge. Barnes & Noble
    ****** Architectural Lighting Graphics, by John E. Flynn and Samuel M. Mills; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. - N.Y. 1962 Library of Congress #62-8985 This book is the Architectural Graphics Standards, of lighting. If you can find a copy of it, or if it is still published, it is well worth any price. This book not only best describes what light in each of its 1960s forms does, but also has the design data and specs for not only every type of lamp on the market, but also the data for reflectance on every type of fixture involved with lighting. As a designer it is very useful, as an electrician it is essential. Boarders and Resale Shop
    ***** Audel, Electrical Course for Apprentices and Journeymen, by Roland E. Palmquist Macmillan General Reference - N.Y. 1988 ISBN: 0-02-594550-5 This is a training manual for electrician apprentices with questions at the end of each chapter to test your reading. Its intention is for providing apprentices or journeymen with at least the minimum amount of knowledge they kneed for their field, and guess what, it would not be a bad read for those in the lighting industry. This book goes into great detail about the science of electricity down to the molecular level. In fact, this book spends most of its time with the basics and basis of lighting, and only devotes a little space to actual equipment and wiring techniques. This book this forms a good place to start training. Barnes & Noble
    ***** Audel, Electricians Pocket Manual, First Ed. by Paul Rosenberg; Simon & Schuster Macmillan Co. - N.Y. 1997 ISBN: 0-02-036425-3 This tool box book sized book is the norm for most modern books on electrical wiring. They just do not make large books like the below Handy Book of Practical Electricity, anymore which are all encompassing and go into great depth on the subject - enough to really be useful. This book is more or less topical of professional electrician’s books this size, which goes into a small amount of detail about the whole of the subject, and has some important details, but not enough information about any one subject to gain expertise. This book for instance has an excellent section on gears, but given the books size, it does not go into great depth, or assumes pre-knowledge of electrical wiring and concepts because things like how a ballast works is not covered. Other books I have seen in this size cover other subjects in great depth and gloss over the subjects in this book. In other books, I have seen useful sections on things like the affects of amperage on the human body, or very useful sections on motor troubleshooting, but than not as much on how they are wired. When buying such tool box manuals, it is important to read into the book to see what information it is going to go into detail about in regards to what you want to read about. I do not have the titles to any other books of this size at this time because after having read them, I have loaned them out and never saw them again. Boarders
    ****** Audels Handy Book of Practical Electricity with Wiring Diagrams, by Frank D. Graham Theodore Audel & Co. - New York 1967 This really big little book is a important learning tool as to how it was done, and how to do it with absolute assurance it is right. Once this book is read, old equipment is not as scary looking because back then wiring was a lot simpler, it is consequentially easier to learn the trade basics from this book than a modern one. The limiting factor in the book is the great amount of detail this book gives. It is impossible to read each chapter and fully understand what it is telling you, the calculations and detail is so great, the reader is best off reading the subjects, gaining the concepts from it, and going back to the book when possible and needed to use what it tells about each subject as needed. This book has proven its merit by teaching the great “Bush” some things he did not know about motors and how they work. This textbook in many areas to date is the only resource and authority available (See American Electricians Handbook Below) on many subjects most books either assume you already know about, or just do not go into enough depth about. It would be worth some effort to see if there is a current publication of this book which would probably be very useful in describing modern systems, but due to bulk have to cut out a lot of what is in this version. The use of both books than would give an in-depth amount of knowledge on the current applications covering the entire field of wiring. Re-Sale Shop & Boarders?
    *** Audel Guide to the 1999 National Electrical Code, Revised by Paul Rosenberg; Macmillan - N.Y. 1999
    ISBN: 02-862811-X This is a guide to the NEC code which goes into more detail about the code and the rational behind each of its guidelines. It however glosses over or omits large sections of the code, especially the theater areas. On the other hand, the more detailed description of the code is better for those who are still learning as the code by itself as a text is rather dry, repetitive and confusing. This or a few other general expiations of are good for the learning of the code but still dry and repetitive. Boarders
    ***** Basic Electricity, Prepared by The Bureau of Naval Personnel 2nd ed.; Dover - N.Y. c.2000
    ISBN: 0-486-20973-3 This is a Re-Print of a 1960 U.S. Navy manual on electricity, and looks to be an absolute Dover classic and gem where classic wiring, theory and education are concerned. It covers all the theories such as D.C. circuits, Inductance, Capacitance, Synchros, and many other highly technical things from the perspective of 40 years ago, when things were just becoming modern, but were still comparatively simple. As a historical reference alone, the pictures of the equipment, tools and techniques are of great interest, much less the information this book has in it for training. This book is similar to Audel’s, but is readily available, and possibly a little more user friendly. It also covers in depth slightly different subjects such as batteries and D.C. power. Barnes & Noble
    +++++ Basic Industrial Electricity, by Kenneth G. Oliver 1990; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF3533
    “Shows the maintenance electrician how the equipment performs its function and what is required to maintain it.”
    +++ Basic Lighting Worktext for Film and Video, by Richard K. Fernchase; Focal Press
    “Guides film and video professionals through the fundamentals of light science.”
    +++ Benfield Conduit Bending Manual, 2nd Ed. 1992; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF6505
    “Learn it from the source! The author Jack Benfield, explains the Benfield art of conduit bending in crystal-clear language. Basic elementary arithmetic does it! Using simple formulas, tables and diagrams, this method works with any make of bender found on any job. The magic formula works even if bends are made in the crotch of a tree or a hole in a wood block. (110pp)”
    +++ Calculations for the Electrical Exam, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2552
    Covers branch circuits, ampacity, motors, taps, box/conduit sizing, cooking equipment, commercial & dwelling calculations & more! Includes practice exams & ansewers!
    ++++ Code Check Electrical, Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF3918 “Guides you through the complex 1999 NEC so you can build it safe and right - and avoid expensive call - backs. You’ll find a wealth of clear, accurate information, all thoroughly explained and referenced to the NEC.”
    **** Commercial Electrical Wiring, by John E. Traister; Craftsman Book Co. - Carlsbad, CA. 1997
    ISBN: 0-934041-97-0 This Book is a better basics book than most home improvement type electrical manuals, but not as detailed as it should be given its specific title. Boarders
    +++++ Computerized Lightboards, Focal Press
    +++++ Concert Lighting: Techniques, Art and Business, by James L. Moody; Focal Press ISBN: 0-240-82934
    This book is worth examining and buying soon... “Concert Lighting is designed to assist students and professionals in understanding the unique fixtures, structures, and special effects and design elements used in concert lighting. It includes sections on CAD, moving lights, hi-bred consoles, and concert techniques in television production.” Boarders, Tools For Stagecraft & Secoa
    +++++ Control Systems For Live Entertainment, by John Huntington; Focal Press - Newton, MA. 1994
    ISBN: 0-240-80177-6 “Huntington provides a through examination of how computers are being used in the arena of live show control and a discussion of all the components vital to controlling lighting and sound for live entertainment systems. The book also highlights such hot topics as Multimedia and MIDI.” (288pp) TCI - Review: Philip Nye “As a reference for technicians, designers, and technical managers working in the theatre, this must be an invaluable volume and these people are its primary audience. However, for equipment designers, true engineers, and anyone else new th toe field, ti left me with a certain uneasiness: I spotted quite a number of small mistakes, ranging from topographical errors through contradictions in bit orders and voltage levels to unanswered paradoxes....”
    ***** Designing With Light, 2nd. Ed. J. Michael Gillette; Mayfield Publishing Co. Mountain View, Ca. 1989
    The book I learned the basics from. it is not as modern as Stage Lighting Revealed but just as good to learn the basics from. Boarders, Act I, Re-Sale
    +++ Dictionary for the Electrician, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2554
    +++++ Electric Motor Repair, 3rd. Ed. by Robert Rosenberg 1987; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2037
    An intensely practical book on electric motor repair. Includes capacitor motors, repulsion-type motors, and three phase. Includes extensive illustrations and specific trouble-shooting and repair information throughout. Unique design makes text and illustrations easily accessible. (775pp)”
    +++ EC&M’s Electrical Calculations Handbook, by John Paschal 2000; ISBN: 0-0700570956
    This book is a collection of all the essential calculations every electrical professional needs to pr9operly design, install and maintain electrical equipment. It is a one-stop resource for finding the calculations they need to increase profits, solve technical problems, and NEC compliant. The work out examples provide templates for solving everyday problems. Co-published between EC&M and McGraw-Hill.” (420pp)
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Applying Installing and Maintaining Transformers, EC&M pub.#5852
    “Covers Transformer basics including types; connections; overcurrent protection; calculations; effect of nonlinear loads and harmonics.”

    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Applying Low-Voltage Fuses, EC&M Pub. #4791
    “A long time favorite source on these protective devices: fuse construction and classes; short-circuit current behavior; and time-current characteristic curves.”
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Emergency, Standby & Other Auxiliary Power Systems, EC&M Pub. #6034
    “New resource to affordable onsite power covers details for applying emergency, legally required, and optional standby power.”
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Ground Fault Protection, EC&M Pub. #6085 “Covers the basics: designing a GFP system;
    GFP for ungrounded systems; GFP for other systems; Case histories; NEC requirements; maintenance, and more.”
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Modern Lighting Techniques, EC&M Pub. #4783
    Book is loaded with up-to-date information on equipment, Code rules, design, display lighting, emergency lighting, controls, and energy efficiency.”
    ++++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Motors and Motor Controllers, 2nd ed. by John Paschal; EC&M Pub. Overland Park KS. 1999 Order # 7162 “Includes a wealth of information about motors of all types, various types of motor controllers, motor circuit considerations, control circuits, installations and maintenance. Details the types of motors and controllers available, where each type can be best applied, how the power and control circuits should be set up, and why they should be designed that way, including specifics on compliance with the 1999 NEC. Also provides insights into how to install motors to eliminate many of the problems that have been recorded in the the past, and how to maintain them.”
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Overcurrent Protection, EC&M Pub. #6360
    “Covers characteristics of low and medium voltage over-current protective devices including circuit breakers, fuses and switches, protective relays and similar devices.”
    +++ EC&M’s Practical Guide to Quality Power for Sensitive Electronic Equipment, 2nd Ed. EC&M Pub. #6670
    “A must read for everyone involved in designing, installing, maintaining, or operating facilities containing sensitive electronic equipment.”
    +++ EC&M’s Short Circuit Calculations “The Easy Way”, by J.R. Seiver and John Paschal 2000;
    ISBN: 0-87288-745-6 “This book is written specifically to simplify short circuit calculations. It contains the most streamlined, simplified method of short-circuit calculations ever made available. Although in the past the subject of short-circuit calculations has been a difficult one, this book shows just how straightforward it can actually be, and how amazingly little time it can take to make highly-accurate short circuit calculations for an entire electrical power system. Forget what you thought that you knew before about abstract short-circuit calculations, and instead adopt this new intuitive and understandable “Easy Way” method. It saves time, provides a “feel” for what is happening in the circuit, and is so simple and timesaving that “what if” scenarios can be easily and swiftly done. The book also contains a spreadsheet on disk to help figure calculations.” (124pp)
    ++++ EC&M’s Step-by-Step Guide to Lighting, by John Paschal 1998; ISBN: 0-87288-695-6
    This book will help an electrician face the challenges of providing first-class illumination. It includes detailed treatment of the types of lamps that are available to the electrical industry today. With information on the use of computers in lighting systems design, this book provides insight into modern lighting software as well as how to make professional ighting drawings using CAD techniques chapter exercises allow readers to reinforce learning. Includes a disk of sample CAD lighting installation drawings. Instructor’s guide is available separately.” (144pp)
    +++ EC&M’s Understanding NEC Rules on Lighting, 2nd Ed. 1996; ISBN: 0-87288-612-3
    Covers lighting in general purpose areas, hazardous (classified) locations, swimming pools, signs and special equipment, emergency and standby areas, and public places. Discusses wiring methods, voltage requirements, materials, and lighting circuit design. Includes a new supplement updating the book to the 1999 NEC.” (150pp)
    +++ Electrical Engineering, Reference Manual for the P.E. Exam, 1997; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF3152
    No-Data given for this book, presumably it is information needed to gain an electrical engineering certificate, which would also be useful in occasional detail for specking out electrical projects.
    +++ Electrical Grounding: Bringing Grounding Back to Earth, 5th Ed. by Ron O’Riley; Construction Savvy - Dist.
    #AF2741-99 A highly illustrated, systematic approach for understanding grounding principles and their application to the 1999 NEC. The rules are first illustrated, explained, reasoning behind them is discussed, and then applied to an actual installation. Use continually as a reference guide, as each installation covers all the rules and calculations for that installation. It helps keep anyone in the electrical, construction, and/or maintenance industries current with the codes on grounding. Illustrates and explains grounding rules and applications, and includes detailed examples for sizing grounding conductors. (294pp)”

    +++++ Electrical Motor Controls, Rockis/Mazur 1997; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF6440-97
    Covers control devices used in modern industrial electrical systems. Chapters are organized so the content is presented in logical order, starting with basics such as tools, symbols, diagrams and manual controls. The workbook includes 17 tech-cheks based on the corresponding text chapters, and 111 worksheets that help you apply concepts and theory to practical problems. The instructor’s guide offers suggested approaches to the text material, and answers to all tech chek and worksheet questions. (490pp)”
    +++++ Electrical Power, Kaiser 1998; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF9180
    This handy reference provides an understanding of the principles & operation of motors, generators, transformers, and motor controls. It covers rules governing the behavior of electricity and magnetism, and machines and devices that generate, transform, and use electrical power for motor control. (320pp)”
    ++++ Electrical Safety in the Workplace, by Ray A. Jones and Jane G. Jones; NFPA #M3-IESW-00 Shock, flash “Burn,
    thermal burn, and other dangers put workers in peril every day... Eliminate and mitigate the hazards with NFPA’s far-reaching Electrical Safety in the Workplace! In this vital reference and training tool, renowned PE Ray Jones reveals his proven strategies for developing and operating electrical safety programs. (400pp 2000)”
    ++++ Electrical Systems Based on the 1999 NEC, by Michael I. Calfaman?; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF9075-99 Contents include: Wiring methods, materials. Conductors and Overcurrent protection. Branch circuits and Feeders. Grounding. Transformers. Services. Equipment for general use. Calculations and Final exam.
    +++ Electrical Theory, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2555
    +++++ Electrical Wiring Commercial, Mulin & Smith 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF281-99 Learn all aspects of
    commercial wiring from this comprehensive guide to applying the newly revised 1999 NEC. This practical hands-on text teaches how to apply the code, and also prepares students to communicate with inspectors, customers, and engineers about electrical systems. Has been expanded to include several new topics such as sizing branch circuits; neutral sizing processes; feeders and service; new loading, branch circuit and panel board.”
    +++++ Electrical Wiring Industrial, 10th ed. by Robert L. Smith & Stephen L. Herman 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist.
    #AF2475-99 “This practical text has students work their way through an entire industrial building, wiring the branch circuits, feeders, service entrance and many of the electrical appliances and sub-systems found in industrial buildings. Each step is clearly defined with over 200 references to the NEC, with in-depth coverage of the effects of non-linear loads.”
    +++++ Electrical Wiring Residential, 13th ed. by Ray C. Mullin; Delmar - Boston 1999 ISBN: 0-8273-8607-9
    This book seems like a much more competent how to book than all the Time Life books put together. It is seemingly geared towards the tradesmen and as such would be a good source of information for the lighting tech. “Learn all aspects of residential wiring and how to apply them to the wiring of a typical house. Loaded with examples, photos, illustrations, and wiring diagrams. Included is a complete set of room-by-room electrical floor plans and two blank floor plans to help learning through actual applications of NEC rules. All instructions and practices are consistent with OSHA safety requirements and methods and materials required by the 1999 NEC to ensure safety of people and equipment.” Barnes & Noble
    ++++ The Electrician’s Book of Trade Secrets, Hood St. Press; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF491
    This one is guaranteed to keep your attention - your competition is using it often! Order this special find and receive a collection of real electrician’s trade secrets - the best, smartest, fastest and safest ways of doing things. Gathered from electricians, motor winders, engineers, inspectors, and contractors, these invaluable techniques took years to assemble. Includes motor tricks, faster ways to install conduit, trouble-shooting tips, and more. Just one great idea will pay for this text over and over. (145pp)”
    +++++ Electrician’s Exam Preperation, by Michael Holt; Delmar - Boston 1999 ISBN: 0766803767
    Even if the reader does not intend to get a licence, this book should be a wealth of information on how things are supposed to be done according to code. Audel’s and many other companies publish similar materials, and anyone interested in seriously studying this subject should get them all. For those who do or do not chase the idea of going legal, at very least, this book should help the reader get an idea of the wealth of information he does not yet know or understand, and thus should. Barns & Noble
    +++ Electrician’s Guide to Conduit Bending, Coxco; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF1094
    The purpose of this text is to assist the electrician with developing the techniques required to accurately and efficiently bend conduit. Exposed conduit is there for all to see and directly reflects the ability of the installer. It will benefit all electricians to learn one of several methods of bending conduit that will assure accurate and precision bent conduit. (116pp)
    ***** Electrician’s Pocket Manual, McGraw-Hill Pocket Reference by Rex Miller; McGraw-Hill - New York 2000
    ISBN: 0-07-136026-3 This is possibly the best of the mini-electrical manuals, it goes into a little more depth about the items it covers than other books, and gives worthwhile descriptions and information on the articles covered especially its sections on lamps blueprint/schematic reading and electronics. Barns & Noble & Boarders
    ++++ The Electrician’s Pocket Reference, John E. Traister; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF3181
    Designed for quick and easy reference on any electrical job, this convenient, pocket-sized guide offers you a wealth of information. Filled with the most frequently used tables and charts, this expert source resource fully covers: Codes, standards, safety and print reading. Tools, materials, equipment and installation. At-a-glance solutions to many common electrical problems. Whether you’re a seasoned pro or an apprentice, this versatile reference will help you complete even the most difficult residential, commercial, industrial or institutional electrical job.”
    +++++ Electrician’s Troubleshooting Pocket Guide, by John E. Tamster McGraw Hill 2000; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2146-00 Shows how to effectively test and troubleshoot all types of electrical systems in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings using a wide variety of testing equipment-including meters, ammeters, voltmeters, and megaohemmeters. You’ll also find detailed, step-by-step procedures for verifying that instruments and related equipment are working properly ... and troubleshooting circuits and equipment, ranging from incandescent fixtures to mercury lamps, motor to motor controls, and overcurrent devices to transformers (325pp)
    +++ Electricity One-Seven, 2nd ed. Edited by Harry Mileaf 1996; Construction Savvy - Dist. #A226
    “Combines a series of volumes designed specifically to teach electricity. One topic or concept is examined on a page, and each page carries an illustration that graphically depicts the topic being covered. Important points are also summarized with each illustration. Electricity One-Seven covers producing electricity, D.C. circuits, A.C. circuits, LCR circuits, test equipment, power sources and electrical motors. All technical terms are defined as they are introduced in the text, and key words are emphasized with italics throughout.”
    +++ The Emergency and Security Lighting Handbook, Focal Press “Discusses techniques and equipment for flood lighting, infra-red detectors, and CCTV as well as safety lighting for use in burning or damaged buildings.”
    ++++ Ferm’s Fast Finder, NEC #M3-RES68-99 “Ferm’s Fast Finder includes 90 quick-reference tables plus diagrams and formulas! Completely up-to-date with today’s NEC, this edition of Ferm’s includes reference tables, electrical diagrams, formulas, and illustrations to help you complete electrical projects quickly and accurately. You’ll save time and be on your way to passing inspections. (396pp 1999)”
    +++ Film and Video Lighting Terms and Concepts, Focal Press +++++The Followspot Training Program, Theatrical Technicians, Inc. (TTI)
    “This is an instructor’s package containing a complete training guide, full glossary, class planning outlined with checklist, and copy masters for student handouts. Covered is basic setup, nomenclature, pickups, cuesheets, controls, and more. Sample written and practical tests are included with answer sheets.” (23pp)
    +++ Grounding Workbook, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2553
    +++++ Getting the Most from Your Followspot - An Operator’s Handbook, Theatrical Technicians, Inc. (TTI); “This is the official IATSE craft training manual fro professional operators, stage managers and lighting designers. The text is used in followspot classes, workshops and apprenticeship programs in both educational and legitimate theatre.”
    *** Handbook of Electric Power Calculations, Second Ed. by Arthur Seidman; McGraw Hill - N.Y. 1997
    ISBN: 0-07-0570048-5 Not an easy read. At this time this book is above my head and I am not ready to read it yet. It looks really interesting and technical however and someday I hope it lives up to its expectations. Boarders
    ++++? Handbook of Scenery Properties and Lighting II, Volume 2 Lighting by Harvey Sweet) Allyn & Bacon - DesMoines 1994“A must-have guide to lighting design and implementation. From the psychology of color and its impact on the audience to the basics of electrical wiring and safety, provides a comprehensive overview of lighting for professional, non-commercial, and educational productions. Introduction to the purpose, functions, and qualities of stage lighting, then moves on to lighting design, including design strategies and color as a design element. Weaves in practical concerns and their effect on lighting design when discussing mounting positions and equipment, lighting instruments, electricity and electrical wiring, and lighting control. Covers control boards and dimmers; special effects, including HMI fixtures; low voltage - high intensity lamps and fixtures; computer-aided paperwork; and computer graphics. Has suggestions for less costly alternatives.” Act I & Boarders (227pp
    +++ House Wiring with the NEC, Ray C. Mullin; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF1073-99
    The easy to understand text provides hundreds of examples, diagrams, photos and illustrations plus two electrical floor plans and two blank floor plans to help learning through applications of the NEC rules.
    *** Illustrated Guide to the National Electrical Code, by Charles R. Miller; Delmar Publishers - N.Y. 1999 ISBN: 0-7668-0529-8 This is an easier to read explanation of the code but with an even more narrow focus than the Audel Guide. It is filled with drawings and explanations, but again not of a huge amount of use on stage. Boarders
    +++ International Electrical Code, ICC, by the International Code Council; Construction Savvy - dist. #AF3147-00 “Contains administrative text necessary to administer and enforce the referenced National Electrical Code.”
    ++++ Journeyman Electrician’s Exam Q&A, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2549 “Contains
    12 closed-book exams & 14 open-book exams. Over 1,300 exam questions with answers & code references.”
    ++++ Journeyman Electrician’s Exam Workbook, by R.E. Chellew 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist.
    #AF2347-99 Ace the journeyman electrician’s exam with ease! This guide is filled with the basic theory and formulas needed for thorough exam preparation. The instructors guide answers with NEC references, and solutions when necessary, for all practice test questions. (129pp)
    +++ Key Word Index, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2556
    “Find what you’re looking for in the Code Book in Seconds!
    +++ Master Electrician’s Exam Q&A, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2550 “Ten closed-book exams & 12 open-book exams take you cover to cover in the code. Over 1,340 actual exam questions with answers.”
    ++++ McGraw-Hill’s National Electrical Code Handbook, 23rd ed. by Joseph F McPartland 1999;
    Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF1092-99 This handbook remains the choice resource professionals and students turn to for the best explanation and interpretation of the complicated and hard-to-read Code. This time-saving tool helps electricians to know and manage the Code with added enhancements including step-by-step explanations of complicated rules, and easy to follow how-to instructions. (1,300pp)”
    +++ Modern Residential Wiring, Harvey N. Holtzman 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF7452-99
    Modern Residential Wiring text provides you with a solid background of electrical principles and practices, and a thorough understanding of National Electrical Code requirements. It covers not only the “how” but the “why” of safe electrical wiring practice. Modern Residential Wiring workbook is designed for use with the text and includes instructions, objectives, and problems.”
    +++ Motion Picture & Video Lighting, by Blain Brown; Focal Press
    “Explores the technical, aesthetic and practical aspects of lighting for film and video. This comprehensive book reveals inside information that explores the challenges faced by cinematographers, lighting directors, gaffers, and grips. Through a hands-on approach, augmented by insightful diagrams, tables, charts and photographs. The author illustrates the power of light as one of the most important elements of film making.”
    +++ NFPA 101 Life Safety Code 2000, NFPA #M3-101-00
    “Design and install electrical projects that meet the 2000 LSC! This new LSC is making headlines across the nation for its milestone performance based design option. But the 2000 edition also references up to date versions of nearly fifty other documents - including the 1999 National Electrical Code! A better Code for a brand new era in the building industry! Users will discover that the 2000 Code Expands life safety know-how and makes requirements easier to follow. Only NFPA 101 covers the full range of construction, protection, and occupancy features you need to protect people against fire smoke and panic. (387pp 2000)
    +++ NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance, 1998 ed.NFPA #M3-70B-98 “Protect People, buildings, and equipment with a top-notch EPM program! To guard against the failure or malfunction of electrical systems and equipment, you need an electrial preventative maintenance (EPM) program that’s tailored to meet your company’s needs. NFPA 70B will help you develop a working program in any facility - from industrial plants to commercial buildings to large multi-family residential complexes. (173pp 1998)”
    +++ NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, 2000 ed. NFPA #M3-70E-00 “Follow the most respected guide for electrical safety at work! Everyone charged with providing or evaluating electrical safety in employee workplaces needs the critical information compiled in NFPA 70E! Here are vital requirements covering the safe installation of electrical equipment - from general rules to those addressing the installation of special equipment such as elevators, electric signs, and computer processing systems.” (85pp 2000)
    +++ NFPA 780 Standard for the installation of Lightning Protection Systems, 2000 ed. NFPA #M3-780-00
    “Safeguard against costly lightning damage!” This book is constantly cross-referenced to and cited for instruction on the subject and would seem to be an important guide to read and understand. (50pp 2000)
    +++ NFPA 79 Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery, 1997 ed. NFPA #M3-79-97 “Keep your focus on the correct design and installation of industrial machinery! NfPA 79 is the most frequently referenced safety standard for industrial machinery in the U.S. and around the globe. And it’s the only standard considerations posed by the electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, and systems used in industrial machinery and manufacturing processe
    ***** 1996 National Electrical Code, Woods; NFPA - Quincy, MA. ISBN: 0-87765-402-6
    This is the bible for electrical work. Every person who works in the field should strive like a scholar to get thru reading and understanding it. Failing this, anyone who works with wires but has no intent to learn the rules of what to do with them, should change fields. This copy in particular was not very expensive, but seems to be complete. Many less expensive versions of the code are not complete and loose much in the translation. This is the trade off afford ability verses completeness. Boarders or Mail Order
    +++++ 1999 National Electrical Code Handbook: NFPA #D7-70HB99 or M3-70HB99
    This book has the full text of the code plus valuable advice and background data on the code but not published in the code. It is published from the NEC and while not cheap, is a good and useful buy to fill in the details and intent of the code proper. NFPA
    +++++ 1999 National Electrical Code: NFPA #D7-70-99SB or M3-70-99SB This is the rule book. It is the rule book proper, from the organization that wrote it. It is not cheap but in a way it goes to a worthy cause and it is one of the few books which is complete, not edited for content like most books on the market. NFPA
    ++++ NEC Changes 1999, NFPA #M3-NEC99CHG
    “This NFPA guide details and explains every major change in the 1999 NEC. Expert guidance, on-the-job examples, and special graphs and diagrams all serve to highlight the Code’s revised guidelines. It covers over-current protection, grounding, branch circuits, audio systems and other key issues.” NFPA
    ++++ National Electrical Safety Code, U.S. Gov. #C2-1997 NFPA #M3-RES69-96 “Work responsibly around live electric supply with the National Electrical Safety Code! Adopted as law by most states and public service commissions throught the U.S., the NESC complements the NEC with extra safety requirements for live electric supply. It covers installation, operation, and maintenance of conductors and equipment in electric supply stations - plus overhead and underground electric supply and communications lines. (312pp 1997”
    ++++ NESC Handbook,4th ed. by Alen L. Clapp IEE Standards Press, NFPA #M3-RES70-96
    “The NESC Handbook helps you minimize risks - and comply with the Code correctly and efficiently. Look to the National Electrical Safety Code Handbook for expert guidance on putting the NESC into action. Background information and detailed explanations provide guidance for applying and enforcing the Code’s essential safety requirements. Charts, diagrams, and definitions clarify key concepts. (504pp 1997)”
    ++++ NFPA Electrical Inspection Manual with Checkists, NFPA #M3-99NECCL “Another industry first from NFPA! The Inspection Manual, compiles all the criteria inspectors use to evaluate jobs, giving you the key to passing inspections on most types of electrical installations. A great asset to both Code users and enforcers.” NFPA
    +++ Ohm’s Law, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2548
    ***** Old Electrical Wiring, by David E Shapiro; McGraw Hill - N.Y. 1998 ISBN: 0-07-057879-6
    A really good book to read if you live or work in a building more than twenty years old. There is no other book with as much info on the how and why’s of the way it was done. Boarders
    *** OSHA Electrical Regulations Simplified, NFPA #M3-RES-67
    “Find Explanations and advice on applying and enforcing OSHA electrical safety requirements for employee workplaces! This illustrated manual clarifies OSHA’s mandates as well as vital provisions in other documents. Using everyday language, it spells out what company owners and managers need to know about.” NFPA/OSHA
    +++ Pocket guide to the National Electrical Code, 1999ed. by Marvin J. Fischer;
    NFPA #M3-RES93-99 Ideal for routine jobs, this compact, 3.1/4" x 5.1/4" guide covers many frequently referenced portions of the 1999 NEC. Includes over 150 pages of tables plus appendices, extracts, data on calculating ampacities, and helpful examples. (442pp. 1999)”
    ++++ A PracticalGuide to Stage Lighting, by Steven Louis Shelley ISBN: 0-240-80353-1
    Seems like another modern Stage Lighting Revealed book. “This book is a nuts-and-bolts look at the construction and implementation of theatrical lighting design. Combining theory and application, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of lighting systems along with step-by-step examples and illustrations of the technical tools and methods. Readers will benefit from the experience based tips, techniques, and traps to avoid in preparing and executing a lighting design.” Boarders & Secoa
    +++++ Recommended Practice for DMX: A Guide for Users and Installers, by Adam Bennette; PLASA and USITT 1994 “Bundled with the DMX512 and AMX192 protocol standards.” TCI Review by Glenn Loney - “this will probably be known as the DMX Bible, the standard reference text for DMX users trying to keep themselves out of the hell an unreliable DMX system can make. Unlike the Bible, Recommended Practice for DMX is unambiguously written, and clearly spells out what is good practice and what common practices are not good. This book however is hard to find stuff in, as it does not have an index, and its section titles are not very clear as to what they entail. The key to finding things in this book is in understanding that it is written as a hook-up guide and not as a abstract topic book... It explains things from the first thing a person needs the cable, to the connector, to other practical topics in the front to the rear of the book presenting arcane, theoretical topics...” (79pp)
    ++++ Recommended Practice for Ethernet Cabling Systems, In Entertainment Lighting Applications, ESTA Publications. Stage Step - Dist. #TE3011 “Describes preferred system topologies, hardware, and labeling practices. Gives a synopsis of how Ethernet works. Ethernet is the preferred technology for linking multiple consoles, designer’s stations, and dimmers in permanent installations. Touring companies are also beginning to use Ethernet as a way to reduce the amount of control cabling needed for big shows. Written by recognized lighting systems experts. Stage Step - Guide to Preforming Arts
    +++ Reminders for the Electrician, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2546
    “Contains the hard to remember load calculations.”
    +++++ Set Lighting Technician’s Handbook 2nd Ed. by Harry C. Box (377 pages); Focal Press
    “Film lighting equipment, practice and electrical distribution. Primarily intended as a movie electrician’s guide, this book has lots of cross-over information valuable to any theater, television, or concert electrician. It’s down to earth guide to practices, equipment, and ‘tricks of the trade’ for those of us in the “trenches”. Includes electrical distribution and regulation, HMI, and arc light operation, set protocol, effects lighting, light manipulation, stands, mounting hardware and much more.” Tools for Stagecraft
    ++++ The Speed of Light, Linda Essig, - covers the
    development of DMX512 (though not at the bits & bytes level) as well as
    computer control and automated lighting and the impact these technological
    advances have on our industry. - Mitch Hefter [email protected]
    ESTA / USITT DMX Revision (ANSI BSR E1.11) Task Group Chair
    USITT Engineering Vice-Commissioner, DMX512 Subcommittee Chair
    +++ Soares Book on Grounding, 7th ed. by J.Phillip Simmons, IAEI 1999; NFPA #M3-RES88-99 Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF6788-99 This book makes grounding theory and practice easy to understand using dozens of new and revised illustrations! Based on the NEC, you’ll learn how to design electrical distribution systems for safety. A powerful reference for electrical inspectors, electricians, electrical contractors, power company engineers, consulting engineers, and students. (287pp)”
    *** Stage Lighting, Richard Pilbrow; Drama Book Publishers - N.Y. 1991 ISBN: 0-89676-005-7
    This book was written by a great designer but is out of date and geared towards the European Theater, in other words the good system used to figure out beam spread is not used anymore on current lights, and many of the instrument’s data in the book are not found in the U.S. On the other hand, it is a good basic design book and has the best pre-Photometrics Handbook Technical data system available for its time. It also tells a lot about pre-1990s equipment. Before Stage Lighting Revealed and Photometrics Handbook, this and the Gillette were the best on the market. Act I, Boarders, or Resale Shop
    *** Stage Lighting in the Boondocks 4th ed. by James Hull Miller Meriwether Publishion Ltd. - CO. 1995
    ISBN 1-56608-017-7 Ok book on the basics of lighting without much equipment. Possibly even some good ideas but not much of value it’s not heavy on the tech part of building equipment and some of what’s given isn’t very proper. The artwork is the most limiting factor in this book. It is so bad it hampers understanding of what it’s showing. Act I, Boarders.
    ****** Stage Lighting Controls, Uif Sandström; MPG Books Ltd. - Bodmin, Cornwall 1997
    ISBN: 0240514769 This book on intelligent lighting, dimming, control and the history of the above is the first modern and quality and in-depth book on the subject, and to date the only one which in depth describes as much as is possible about how such things work based on the idea concept of control language from the controller in many ways dictates or limits what the dimmer can do. While this book does not go into enough depth on the technical details of the effects of voltage drop on data, or the effects of dust bunnies on a dimmer or light board fader, but it will fill in the details on the equipment enough for the reader to gain a good understanding on the differences between equipment, and in a broad sense, this book shows the basic principals of and how to use any lighting equipment or intelligent lighting device no matter what the brand. The only thing truly lacking in this book is a description of the pin out designations of things like MIDI connectors, which would be easy to describe while giving information on how it works. ACT I & Boarders
    ++++ The Stage Lighting Handbook, 5th ed. by Francis Reid; A&C Black London 1996 ISBN: 0-7136-4436-2 “This popular guide to stage lighting is widely accepted as the standard work on the subject. This book explains the process of designing lighting for all forms of stage production, and describes the equipment used. This new edition includes the latest advances in technology and discusses their impact on working methods.” (224pp)
    +++? Stage Lighting for Theatre Designers, by Nigel H. Morgan (128pp); Stage Step - Dist. #TE703
    “Lighing is crucial to the success of a performance. Every aspect of the lighting design process is covered, from lighting styles, equipment, relationships with directors, and set and costume designers to the development of a design from first ideas to the first night. All practical aspects, including constraints of budget, time and space are considered in this heavily illustrated volume along with explanations of the physical behavior of light and how to make the best use of it.” Stage Step - Guide to Preforming Arts
    ***** Stage Lighting Revealed, by Glen Cunningham (176pp)+ c.1996 The most modern basics book to date on stage lighting, also the current text book of most college programs. It is a good read on the basics of stage lighting and I would like to slug the un-known person I loaned it to who did not give it back. Act I or Boarders
    ++++ Stallcup’s Electrical Calculations Simplified, NFPA #M3-RES-73 & Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF6525-99 ISBN: 1-885341-39-3 “Complex calculations posing problems? Stallcup’s guide is the key to simplified calculations! This edition is consistent with the 1996 NEC.”“Made to condense the more complicated rules pertaining to calculating loads into a compact listing which provides easier understanding of how to perform calculations according to the provisions of the NEC. A broad assortment of basic code calculations have been selected to represent the main principles of electrical circuits with the focus on arriving at firm, accurate numerical data. Covers residential, commercial and industrial locations.”
    ++++ Stallcup’s Electrical Design Book, NFPA #M3-RES72-99 & Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF6526-99 ISBN: -885341-33-4 “Stallcup’s Electrical Design Book is your source for solutions! Find design tips, examples, calcs, and Code references in an easy-to-use workbook format. (608pp 1999)” “Explains the purpose of the NEC and its use as it applies to the design and installation of electrical wiring systems and equipment in residential, commercial, and industrial locations. Includes hundreds of questions, calculations and solutions. (500pp)”
    ++++ Stallcup’s Journeyman Electrician’s Study Guide, 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist.
    #AF6529-99 ISBN: 1-885341-42-3 “Study every type of question on the actual journeyman test using more than 1,500 questions and problems. Target weak areas; concentrate on skill improvement; and hone reasoning, judgement, comparison, and evaluation abilities. Answers to all problems and questions are in the instructor’s guide, sold separately. Based on the 1999 NEC by James Stallcup.”
    ++++ Stallcup’s Generator, Transformer, Motor, and Compressor Book, 1999; Construction Savvy -Dist. #AF6534-99 ISBN: 1-885341-40-7 “This informative and easy to understand text has been developed for the hands-on electrician, with profoundly illustrated text to simplify the fundamentals of operation, construction and maintenance. The paperback text includes questions, while the Instructor’s Guide contains the answers and solutions.”
    +++ Stallcup’s Master Electrician’s Study Guide, by James Stallcup 1999; ISBN: 1-885341-28-8
    “Examine every possible type of question on the master electrician’s exam, and focus on those areas needing extra attention. This book reinforces all you need to know to pass the test with its 2,000 questions and problems. Answers to all problems and questions are in the instructors guide, sold separately. Based on the 1999 NEC.”
    ++++ Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, 14th ed. Fink & Beaty EC&M Books 1999; ISBN: 0-07-020984-7 Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2543 The undisputed “bible” of electrical engineering since 1907. Covers the generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical energy-including the controversial transmission sitting and electric and magnetic fields. Incorporated vital information on the deregulation of the power industry. (2,200pp)
    ++++ Technician’s Guide to Programmable Controllers, 3rd Ed. Richard A. Cox 1994; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF9126 How programmable controllers work, how they are programmed and their applications in industry. Learn by example! The text walks you through the installation, operation and trouble-shooting of a typical system. New chapters cover ladder logic. Each chapter contains objectives, review questions, illustrations, and a summary.”
    *** Theatre Lighting from A to Z, by Norman C. Boulanger; University of Washington Press 1992
    - Seattle WA. 1992 ISBN: 0-295-97214-9 This modern well researched dictionary would be much better if published in long form by subject such as a normal book and not alphabetically. It has a lot of information, but you must already know what to look for before you can find the information in it, making the book limited. In fact, it is useless for anything more than research on term paper type things. Act I or Boarders
    +++ Transformer Exam Calculations, Tom Henry Books; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2551
    +++++ Troubleshoothing Electric Motors, 1996; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF7218
    “Learn how to work with electric motors. Each chapter includes instructional text, explanations of specific applications, followed by activities relating to the chapter, and a trade test.”
    ++++++ Troubleshooting Electrical/Electronic Systems, Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF2134
    Step-by-step applications show how to troubleshoot electrical and electronic systems. Activities provide hands-on experience in solving troubleshooting problems. Covers topics from residential wiring systems to industrial controls. The instructor’s guide contains answers to all activities. (476pp)”
    ++++++ Ugly’s Electrical References, 1999ed. by George V. Hart; Construction Savvy Dist. #AF9081-99 “Need immediate information in the midst of a project? Ugly’s is the classic, quick, on the job reference for the electrical industry. It includes the most commonly required information in an easy to read, easy to access format. Ugly’s is not a substitute for the NEC, but an essential companion relied upon by top electricians.” Construction Savvy & any Electrical Supply House
    ++++ Understanding NEC Calculations, Holt 1999; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF028-99
    Based on the 1999 National Electrical Code, this resource explains NEC calculation rules as they apply to all electrical installations under 600 volts. It includes highly illustrated practical examples of practical examples of proper calculations and warnings of the dangers related to improper calculations. (260pp)
    +++++Wiring a House, by Rex Cauldwel; Taunton publishing - ISBN: 1-56158-113-3
    This book seems to be a competent and very useful basics book on wiring. It has a good amount of detail about both new and old forms of wiring systems you will find in the field, and what to do with them. This book would seem to be a good source in gaining the core skills for the electrical field. Barnes & Noble
    **** Wiring Skills Unit 1, Lab Manual, First Ed., by Energy Concepts Inc. William C. DeVry Pres. - Chicago, Il. 1975 This book, or any electrical trade school manual is a really good source for learning the trade short of attending them. In it are the things most books already assume you know. Resale Shop or Trade School Bookstore

    2) Lighting Design:
    **** Altman Mini Catalog, 4th Ed. Altman Stage Lighting Co. 1998 A good catalog/book to have. Altman until ETC came out was the standard for the industry and as such if you design for their equipment with the specs in this manual, you will be safe. This manual has the technical data on all lighting equipment and accessories and the most complete stage dictionary I have ever seen. (Special Order from Altman only)
    **** Art Nouveau Lamps & Fixtures, by Christopher Wray; Arch Cape Press - N.Y. 1989
    ISBN: 0-57-67883-7 This re-printing of a 1907 Electric Fittings, by James Hinks and Son Ltd. is more or less a catalog on Art Nouveau lamps. Un-fortunately the inked plates in this book are colored in with what looks like crayon to indicate color. The coloring however is not very realistic and makes it harder to discover what each lamp really looks like. The lamps also are all by them selves on a blank white page which also does not help them be usable. Only the sheer volume of lamps in this book makes it useful. Boarders
    **** The Art of Stage Lighting, by Frederick Benthan; 1976 This book is older, but goes into much more, or at least as much detail on the physics and design as the Gelette and McCandless books, but in a more modern sense than McCandless and more detailed than Gelette on the basics of design and lighting control. I used this book in school some, but have not seen it since. This book is a worthwhile buy for the information it gives. Resale Shop & ISU Library
    ****** The Beauty of Light, by Ben Bova; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.- N.Y.1988 ISBN: 0-471-62580-9
    A really good book on the psychology of lighting, and the science behind it. Beyond that, it is not necessary to know in such detail. Resale Shop
    ++++Color Science for Lighting the Stage, by William B. Warfel and Walter R. Klappert; An excellent study on the engineering of stage light - or at least the science component of the art.
    +++ The Control of Light, Focal Press “The authors examine light and explain the technical aspects of controlling it. Source book for all lighting practitioners in theatre, film, television, and photography; the information contained is common to the art if all lighting in any medium.”
    ++++ Design Criteria for Lighting Interior Living Spaces, Illuminating Engineering Society (IESNA); N.Y. 1995
    ISBN: 0-87995-099-4 “A text about lighting solutions which allow for freedom of imagination and originality in design” (54pp)
    ++++? Discovering Stage Lighting, by Francis Reid (144pp); Focal Press (Stage Step - Dist. #TE517)
    “The core of this book consists of a series of “discover” projects, using minimal resources, to explore the use of light in the theater, with particular emphasis on the interaction of conflicting visual aims. Each of the 14 projects are broken down into eight parts: the objective, the setting, the rig, contraction and expansion, cue synopsis, possible problems, analysis of results, assessment of lighting management. Covers all the major scenarios likely to be encountered by lighting students.” This book seem in a narrow focus like a good lab book for beginning lighting students in areas that need more attention than most books give. This book it would seem would go well with a Gelette type book which does a good job of explaining things, but does little to reinforce what it teaches with practical use.” Stage Step - Guide to Preforming Arts
    ++++ Handbook of Electrical Design Details, Traister 1997; Construction Savvy - Dist. #AF1895
    “There’s never been a reference like this for electrical professionals! This massive handbook provides a vast array of layout details for electrical systems in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and facilities. (800pp)”
    *** Handbook of Stage Lighting Graphics, by William B Warfel; Drama Book Publishers - N.Y. 1974
    ISBN: 0-910482-47-0 For when this book was published I am sure it went out to set a standard for design as that seems to be its main goal. As for teaching design, or paperwork, it does not do this very well. It is short and limited in scope. Overall it is of little use. Boarders or Resale Shop
    +++++Jennifer Tipton/Jean Rosenthol
    ++++? The Lighting Art, The Aestetics of Stage Lighting Design, 2nd. ed. by Richard H Palmer (251pp); Stage Step - Dist. #TE707 “Offers valuable assistance in learning the design principles and techniques used in creating effective and visually excitingly lighting design for drama and dance. Addressing the designer rather than the technician, develops design matters in more detail than any other text of its type. Examines the way audiences see as a basis for lighting design. The complexities of visual psychophysics are simplified and applied to lighting design. Also, presents a practical approach for script analysis from the lighting designer’s point of view and analyzes lighting disign according to principles of visual composition.” Stage Step - Guide to Preforming Arts
    ++++ The IESNA Lighting Handbook, Reference and Applications, by Illumininating Engineering Society of North America 9th ed. 2000; Construction Savvy - dist. #AF2627-00
    The handbook provides up-to-date coverage of lighting development, evaluation and interpretation of technical and research findings, and their application guidelines. The most significant change in the new 9th edition is the new procedure for determining the quantity and quality recommendations for lighting design.
    +++ IESNA Ready Reference, by The Illuminating Engineering Society; N.Y. 1995 ISBN: 0-87995-135-4
    “Comprehensive manual on lighting terminology, conversion factors, light source data, reflectance data, illuminance selection, lighting calculation, energy management, cost analysis, & illuminance categories.” (230pp)
    +++ Light - Science and Magic, Focal Press “An introduction to photographic lighting.”
    +++ Lighting by Design, Focal Press
    “Serves as a useful technical guide to practitioners of lighting in theater, film, television, and still photography, particularly when the effects of lighting have a major influence on their contribution to the medium concerned.”
    **** Lighting for Historic Buildings, by Roger W. Moss; The Preservation Press - Washington, D.C. 1988 ISBN: 0-89133-131-X This is a really good book. This book will tell you when and where certain fixtures came into being, what was available how it worked, and how much light it put out. Boarders
    +++++ Lighting the Stage, by Francis Reid; Focus Press “Approaches stage lighting from the human angle. It is concerned with the relationships between the people involved in lighting and how they fit into the creative team. The author draws upon his many years of experience as a lighting designer and teacher to pass on tips and pointers which will interest and stimulate all those concerned with using designed light on stage.
    **** Lighting the Stage: Art & Practice, Willard F. Bellman 1974 This is a book much like The Art of Stage Lighting, and just as detailed about the technique and science of it. Both books are un-complex in their technique and before computerized lighting and data held much importance in design, so the books spend a lot of time with the real basics such as reflection and refraction. This is what real designers need to know, not just how to create a chase sequence or program a Mac. Resale Shop & ISU Library
    +++ Lighting for TV and Film, 3rd Ed. by Gerald Millerson; Focal Press ISBN: 0-240-54582-X “Explores the fundamental principles of lighting in studios, on location and display, and covers single-camera, small unit production, improvised, and economy lighting.
    +++ Lighting Technology, Focal Press; “A Guide for the Entertainment Industry is now available.”
    ****** The Magic of Light, by Jean Rosenthal, How to design for stage lighting and the “White Light” method of design. On of the best books on the subject. Used bookstore/E-Bay
    ****** A Method of Lighting the Stage, by Stanley McCandless; Theatre Arts Books - N.Y. 1973
    This book is not “The Method” it is “A Method” and just happens to be the basis for lighting in the theater. This book is the theory behind the primary basis for lighting the stage. As such, it is also a must read to fully understand the theory behind the method. Act I, Resale Shop, or almost any College Library
    ***** The New Handbook of Stage Lighting Graphics, by William B. Warfel; Drama Book Publishers
    - New York 1990 ISBN: 0-89676-112-6 This is a good book on drafting and converting the lighting design to paper by use of USITT Standards and Photometrics. It is actually even better than most books currently printed because it goes into more detail on how and why to design things. With it the beginning designer can put any show on paper, and with it a more experienced designer will better be able to translate image to design. It is a good but confusing book. If each step is not followed however, the designer is lost. Boarders, Act I, and Resale Shop
    ****** Photometrics Handbook, 2nd Ed. Robert C. Mumm; Broadway Press - Louisville, Ky. 1997
    ISBN: 0911747-37-0 This Second Edition is an updated version of the first, with more detail on modern lighting equipment such as moving lights than the first, but for old school lighting tech people has cursed us into using the new system for referring to fixtures in its update over the origional. The only two limitations of this book are first in this edition, they have stopped referring to the instrument in terms of its focal length, and instead have started using the more modern beam spread angle to describe the fixture in the fixture heading. This practice works well when trying to find a 26° S-4 Leko, but does not help in finding a Altman 6x9 unless the designer has any idea of what beam spread it is, or looks in the body of the instruments description to find the model number from Altman of the instrument which includes the focal length. This does not help however in finding a Kliegl 8x9 however because its model number is 1968. In other words, in simplifying and standardizing this book they have made it harder to use for older fixtures, while making it easier to use for modern ones. The problem before was finding the beam angle of modern lights when focal length was given. (What is the focal length of the same 26° S-4 anyway?) This problem in the subject heading of each instrument however does not detract from the usefulness of the information given in this book. This book is a compilation and attempted standardization of the important information and photometric data for each lighting instrument or bulb on the theater market for use in both matching lamps to use, and matching instrument to design. With it, the designer can choose from an inventory which instrument given beam spread and candle power desired would best be used to light the stage. This revolutionary book much like The Backstage Handbook, is every bit as valuable if not more to the lighting technician as the above book is to the stage hand. This book is based upon the Richard Pilbrow Stage Lighting, idea and formula for finding the beam spread of fixtures based upon formula, but goes one step further giving a graph for the photometric data on the most used lamp for each fixture. Given some time, and some math work not completely given in this book but found in lamp supplier catalogs for lumens converted to candlepower, based on this graph or given data code, the exact intensity on stage for any lamp can be found. The limitation however is that there is never enough time to figure out such data and more graphs while eating up a lot of space in the book would be useful in fitting lamps with need and fixture. This is an important limitation in this book, as the HX 600 puts out a lot more light in a 3.5x5 than a EHD, just as important as the difference between a MSR 575/2 to a MSR 575 in lamp life to intensity. The book is also limited in the amount of fixtures covered in the book, it for instance does not have any real info on Major or Chicago Brands which are Quite common in this area, and has a narrow focus of lights covered in that it only does stage lights and not much in studio or architecture lighting. Such fixtures such as mole, Lowell, and even Quartz work lights while all are commonly used are not covered. This book is also limited in the amount of description given on each fixture, things like pattern size, gel frame size, and other accessaries types would be helpful, as well as info such as roundell info or availability of info on lamp MOL or LCL would be useful in modifying instruments like knowing if say a R-40 lamp can be put in a Altman 6-cell strip light, or what type of lamp best fits the fixture as there are many say 100 watt lamps available, which one given focal center of the reflector will best work in a fixture such as a boarder light. This book should also include more information from Lighting Graphics Standards, on normal fixtures and lamp data.
    Given the limitations of this book however, it is still tremendously to the designer and technician for general information about fixtures, their lamps, and design data. The body of information cannot be gotten by even having a specifications catalog for each fixture because they are in this book standardized and the author figured it out as best as possible when not given. If nothing else, I use this book at least once a week to match lamps with fixtures and with every design to best place my instruments on stage. ACT I & Boarders
    +++ Placing Shadows: Lighting Technique for Video Production, 2nd Ed. Focal Press “A mix of theory and practical applications. Covers the physical properties of light and the selection of proper instruments and their placement for the best possible effect. The book covers the fundamentals, as well as providing a solid reference for tips on better performance and how to prepare for and avoid costly and time-consuming
  11. Mayhem

    Mayhem Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Holy crap 8O Now that it a list of books. I am going to check out if the local library holds any of those and have a look at them.

    Sorry for the misspelling of your name Ship.

  12. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    No problem, such things should be in the personal information settings but are not yet.

    As for the books: Those with a * I read at least most of, those with a + are reviews on what other people think of them which I did not read yet. Than it's based on my own ratings system for how much value I believe they would be if of any help in how many +++/*** I give them.
  13. Nephilim

    Nephilim Active Member

    Likes Received:
    I finally managed to locate the marking on the cable. Ignoring the code requirement for clearly visible markings (they're *just* readable at the moment), is there a problem, code-wise or safety-wise with our vast inventory of SJTW cords (aside from the fact that they're Edison and bright orange)?
  14. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    What type of cable, plug how it's marked and used is very dependant upon your local interpitation and implimentation of the NEC for what classification of places of assembly you qualify for or comply with. Your TD is responsible for what's used as with the school. You can ask the TD if it's the proper type, gauge and grade of cable to be using, but only with tact and at the proper time. Once you get your answer or intent with it that's it because it's their responsibility not yours. It might be that this cable is approved for your application or that it's already known about and being worked on fixing. But don't push it or make a sour face about it. If they don't know you can mention your heard some stuff but because I am not there nor know what your local code is much less what classification of assembly hall or theater it is I cannot say what specifically is required or not. I know what is smart and it's not cheap.

    In general a orange "Edison" extension cord is going to be 16 ga wire which is rated for 1,300 Watts new and no more than 1,000 Watts after it's broken in before you factor in voltage drop. In general unless your dimmers are rated and protected for 10 amp loads, it will be very easy to overload and possibly cause a fire with this cable by up to a 2,000 Watt load drawn by it before the breaker will trip. Actually it's 127% over rated amperage for a period of time stamped on the circuit breaker for most thermal homeline like circuit breakers and dependant upon how old and warn that breaker is, given it's not a instantanious draw of current. In some cases that circuit breaker just does not trip. Been there, the conduit and wire melted into the palm of my hands and across the building the people on stage were wondering why the stage lights suddenly started to brown out. That much current, it's not as simple as just letting go either.

    Get the main problem with using cable that's rated for less than half what will be protected by the overcurrent device?

    Someone does not think about or know what the rated load is on the extension cord, and that cord can pull the current for a while up until the point it melts thru its insulation and causes a fire or shorts - sometimes long after it's powered up. It takes a while for insulation/resistance to get hot enough to melt the insulation. All cable has a safety factor in it thus only pulling 1,000 Watts off something that's really rated for at least 1,300 Watts if not more. Nothing would be rated for 100% plus it's intended load.

    If your Orange extension cords are 14/3, they are rated for 1,800 Watts. This would be the more expensive "Orange" shop cords. I don't mind use of 14/3 wire in general as much even if 16/3 by code is the minimum wire size jumper allowed to be used officially. Given this there is some exceptions in the NEC also. You might find some 12/3 shop cords but they cost about as much money as a black one so why bother at that point. I suspect the people buying your cords are buying whats on sale and don't realize the NEC requirements for their use on stage. Tactfully inquire but be very careful with teaching the teacher that is not open to learning. That if necessary is the role of other teachers and parents - still with tact. Perhaps one of the parents is a contractor that knows the NEC, this would be the best person for an asside on what's required if the TD is not really open to discussion on the subject. Remember that it might be that the problem is already known about and it either complies somehow or is in the works to be fixed. As long as it's properly used and in good condition it is not overtly unsafe.

    There is some good about molded plugs on cords that has an advantage. For the most part you don't have to worry about strain reliefs clamping down onto conductors or loose terminals causing resistance. Plus they will be installed properly at the factory. That's security and tamper proof. Unfortunately such plugs are only designed for a 1800 Watt load, so even if you have a 12ga wire on it, the plug possibly will fail given a 2,400 Watt load or more being drawn from it' 1,800 Watt rated plug. It is 12/3 for voltage drop and motor usage not 20 amp loads. Store bought commercial grade plugs on the other hand will be constructed the same as a 20 amp plug of the same type. They for the most part can draw the 20 amp load given the same construction different layout of the neutral position. However on stage there might be a 15 amp requirement of any parallel blade plug. Details stick in my head at times without remembering the entire part of what's said about it.

    Such plugs as with the cable are not designed for the extra special hard usage as implied on stage thus I suspect why you should not be using the orange cords or Edison. Again, it's dependant upon your schools interpitation of the local code and the local codes interpitation of the NEC or school distract's observance of it - which ever is the governing body for the school.

    There is nothing absolutely unsafe about using orange extension cords, or Edison plugs, even using 16/3 wire as long as you are careful. No it's a junior insulated jacket thus not compliant in that way when over 3' in length, and in general the wire is not going to last as long as a good thick SOOW, but that is besides the point. It works for now as long as you are careful.

    Perhaps make up some gaffers tape flags for the receptaple end of the cable, and write on them the wire gauge and type while you can still see it, and the maximum rated draw in amperage and wattage for the cable. This way those about to plug too much draw into the cable will at least have a chance to correct themselfs and learn about wire amperage ratings. Say 16/3 at 25' for a maximum of 1,200 W, 16/3 at 50' for 1,000W, at 100' for 600W would be a very leanant way of rating it for normal fixtures. For 14/3, 1800W for 25 to 50', and 1,200W for 100'. Sound fair? On 12/3 wire and given I have not done the actual voltage drop calculation, I would say 2,000W not 2,400W would be fair.

    After you finish marking your cable, perhaps get them to budget into next years budget say a 500' spool of proper 12/3 SO cable and cut it into say two 100' lengths, four 50' lengths, and four 25' lengths as a start. If you don't use 100' lengths, perhaps one or none. Use the proper SO wire were ever it will be on the stage floor and as such subject to more abuse. Or as the primary cable on all large loads. If possible perhaps buy 1,000 feet and bulk up on more 25' and less lengths, than only use the orange stuff when you run out of good cable or for small loads when you know you are going to run out. Segrigate it to second class cable and work within the budget to rotate it out of stock. Perhaps all you can afford is 250' next year. It's a start. While doing this, since it's expensive, put your theater name plus it's phone number on it, perhaps a drama department symbol on it and cover it in heat shrink. This way the floor cleaning guy will be much less sucessful in swipping it for the buffer.

    For note, you can purchase from many theater suppliers stage rated cable with pre-molded ends and heat shrink on them for much less money than buying the cable and seperate plugs will cost. I would recommend looking into that.

    If necessary do some kind of fund raising campaign amongst local electrical contractors, parents etc. than get the school to pony up and match what budget is raised for the project. Make it cute for the electricians and electrical supply shops to put a fund raising can on the counter and directly contact others especially those that do the work on the school. Do something like a tin can on the counter with a poster saying something like "help the school buy stage rated cable, donate here" perhaps even frame the sign in some trashed orange extension cord. "We want 12/3 SOOW as required, help please." Cute fund raising cans, with examples that gain attention are good ways of raising funds and give you a better chance of the store owners letting you do fund raising at their store. Note your TD would have to approve in a big way and probably do the approaches to the contractors and stores. Just an idea at least, realistically doing a fund raising campaign is very risky and hard to do politically - the school board might not like to see any such thing.

    For now and even with the proper wire type, stay Edison, should you go stage pin at some point, it would be easy enough to cut off the Edison plugs and install new stage pin ones.

    Any help? I worked at quite a few little theaters that were Edison. They did not listen to the NEC or did not need to comply with the same classification as a real theater. Depends upon how many seats etc. Bars have audiences yet are not considered stages either. Your school board might not consider the theater to be a theater proper by their interpitation of it thus the orange cords. Or more likely, nobody has thought about it yet.
  15. Nephilim

    Nephilim Active Member

    Likes Received:
    THanks for the info. I'll check the gauge on those cords. We rarely are loading them with more than a 575W HPL; however I realise shorts etc can be an issue.

    STEVETERRY Well-Known Member

    Likes Received:
    New York
    You said:
    "Type SJ. You are allowed to use junior jacketed cable on stage but only in lengths three feet and under such as in a twofer or distribution tail. This cable however is allowed to be used with truss supporting it in temporary entertainment wiring such as for rock concerts, so it gets a bit grey with what type of cable you need to use in an assembly hall, stage, verses concert hall or convention center. This in addition to specific uses of each where SO wire is required over SJ."

    This is not quite correct.

    Article 520 of the NEC (Theatres, Audience Areas of Motion Picture Studios, and Similar Locations) requires the use of Extra Hard Usage cable. This would be type S, SO,SOO, ST, STO and silmilar types.

    Junior Hard Service Cord (SJ, SJO, SJT, etc) is only allowed as follows:

    Breakout assemblies 20' or less in length where they are supported by a pipe, truss or similar structure and not lying on the ground. A breakout assembly is a multiconductor connector on one end and two or more single-circuit connectors on the other end. An example would be a Socapex male to 6 female 2P&G pin plugs.

    Twofers not more than 3' in length.

    Special high temperature applications on connector strips or fixtures where the 60 or 90 degree C temperature rating of normal cord is too low for the application.

    Steve Terry
  17. ship

    ship Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member

    Likes Received:
    Noting the changes over the years to the code because I also remember a cable drop concept to this original code designation of what type SJ is not servicable for also written in. Still it’s not much changes in difference for stage or correction.

    Major difference perhaps I have simplified is the 20' verses 3' for SJ in general.

    Still I stand corrected in what’s current code and acceptable and what in concept is acceptable for use. Intent and major emphisis still is that type SJ cable is not to be used as jumpers for stage lighting on stage.

    Still given the valid code stipulation, what the intent was in intent still remains.

    STEVETERRY Well-Known Member

    Likes Received:
    New York
    That is the key point that readers need to follow. But not just "on stage"--in any location where Article 520 applies.

    Other than twofers or breakouts, anything but extra hard usage cable is verboten.

    Also in looking at my previous post, I might have implied that SJ is allowed in special high temp applications. That is not so. These applications release the requirement for extra hard usage cable, but require special high temperature assemblies that become aprt of the UL listing of the fixture, usually made of fiberglass sleeving and teflon wire.

  19. gafftaper

    gafftaper Senior Team Senior Team Fight Leukemia

    Likes Received:
    Theater Manager & T.D.
    Seattle, Washington
    Is SJ allowed on just the split end of the two-fer or is allowed on the single line side of the two-fer as well. That seems like a bad idea if it is. True it's only a couple feet of SJ, but it's only a matter of time until somebody's going to run 12 gauge lines 25 feet in opposite directions and try to burn the place down with a couple of 1000 watt fresnels.

    Has someone cleaned up this thread and put it in the Wiki yet? There are at least three different topics that should be in there.
  20. Sean

    Sean Active Member

    Likes Received:
    Alexandria, VA
    The three-foot limitation is from male connector to female connector. It doesn't matter if it's a "Y" style or a "V" style.

    Incidently, the requirement for SO over SJ isn't about ampacity--it's about the ability of the cable jacket to stand up to the PHYSICAL abuse in a performance environment. Electrically, there isn't anything wrong with "somebody's going to run 12 gauge lines 25 feet in opposite directions and try to burn the place down with a couple of 1000 watt fresnels." Two 1000w loads could be safely carried by 12/3 SJOOW.


Share This Page