# Lamp Questions

#### ship

##### Senior Team Emeritus
Since I'm here, I might offer any help I can give with questions on lamps. I'm kind of rated as an expert on the question of them in the professional world (might have glimpsed a part of that in an earlier posting.)

My current function at work is to fix gear, train people in wiring stuff and lighting in general and to buy equipment especially lamps. (Before that, I was a Master Carpenter, TD and a Rigger.) I average buying about $1,000.00 per day in lamp purchases of all types and that's conservitave. I'm also writing a book on lamps and the differences between not only types but brands of them, along the lines of the Photometrics Handbook in usefulness - (kind of a Bible for the lighting design profession.) Anyone who has interests or questions might post here about them. I don't sell them to people, just advise on them. Good thing to learn about if lighting is your desired prosession much less about general lamps. Here is a extremly small example on HPL lamps on the market of my far in the future's book appendix: (Note the last number is for hours in life.) I use such a table (and it looks much better in table format,) at work every day in choosing what's the best lamp for a fixture or what other versions are available. HPL375w/115v Osram/Sylvania #54625 CL, Quartz 373w/115v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 2,950°K 10,540 Lum 300 HPL-375/115v Ushio #1000666 CL, Quartz (JS115v-375w C) Low Seal Temp. 375w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 10,540 Lum 300 HPL 375/115 Halco CL, Quartz 375w/115v T-6 G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,200°K 10,540 Lum 300 HPL375w/115v/X Osram/Sylvania #54649 CL, Quartz, Extra Life 375w/115v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 2,950°K 8,000 Lum 1,000 HPL-375/115X Ushio #1000667 CL, Quartz(JS115v-375w X) Low Seal Temp. 375w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,050°K 8,000 Lum 2,000 HPL 375/115X Halco CL, Quartz 375/115v T-6 G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,000°K 8,060 Lum 2,000 HPL-375/230X+ Ushio #1003182 (JS230v-375wXN) CL, Quartz Extended Life 375w/230v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Low Seal Temp. 3,000°K 7,250 Lum 1,000 HPL-375/240X+ Ushio #1003183 (JS240v-375wXN) CL, Quartz Extended Life 375w/240v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Low Seal Temp. 3,000°K 7,250 Lum 1,000 HPL550T6/64v Osram/Sylvania #54813 CL, Quartz 550w/64v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 14,600 Lum 300 HPL550T6/77v Osram/Sylvania #54623 CL, Quartz 550w/77v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 16,170 Lum 300 HPL-550/77v+ Ushio #1000668 CL, Quartz(JS 77v-550w C) Low Seal Temp. 550w/77v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 16,170 Lum 300 HPL 550T6/77v/X Osram/Sylvania #54604 CL, Quartz X-Life 550w/77v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 12,160 Lum 2,000 HPL-550/77X+ Ushio #1000669 CL, Quartz(JS 77v550w X) Low Seal Temp. 550w/77v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,050°K 12,160 Lum 2,000 HPL 550/77X Halco CL, Qaurtz 550w/77v T-6 G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,000°K 12,160 Lum 2,000 HPL575T6/95v Osram/Sylvania #54822 CL, Quartz 575w/95v T-6 LCL 60.5mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 16,600 Lum 300 #6989P/S Philips #924541930900 CL, Quartz (GLC type w. Remov. Heat Sink) 575w/100v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,200°K 15,500 Lum 400 HPL575/C G.E. #92431 CL, Quartz (HRG) 575w/115v T-6 LCL 60.2mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,200°K 16,500 Lum 300 HPL 575 G.E. #37129 (?disc.) (?Disc.)CL, Quartz, Single Coil. Square Filmt. 575w/115v T-6 9.5x6.8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,200°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL575T6/115v Osram/Sylvania #54622 (#93725) CL, Quartz 575w/115v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL-575/115v+ Ushio #1000670 (JS115v-575wC) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL 575/115 Halco CL, Quartz 575w/115v T-6 G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,200°K 16,500 Lum 300 GLC*HS Halco CL, Qaurtz 575w/115v T-6 c-13D G9.5*HS 3,200°K 15,500 Lum 300 GLC+HS Philips #29429-8(518736) (#6989P/S) CL, Quartz (GLC w. Remov. Heat Sink) 575w/115v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS (c-13D) “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,200°K 15,500 Lum 400 HPL575/LL/C G.E. #92434 CL, Quartz Long Life (HRG) 575w/115v T-6 LCL 60.2mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,050°K 12,360 Lum 1,500 GLA+HS Philips #29430-6(518767) (#6992P/S) CL, Quartz (GLA w. Remov. Heat Sink) 575w/115v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS (c-13D) “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,100°K 13,500 Lum 1,500 GLA*HS Halco CL, Quartz 575w/115v T-6 c-13D G9.5*HS Base Down 3,100°K 13,500 Lum 1,500 HPL 575 LL G.E. #37815 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz, Long Life, S. Coil Sq.Filmt 575w/115v T-6 10.5x6.9 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,050°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL575T6/115v/X Osram/Sylvania #54807 CL, Quartz, Extended Life 575w/115v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,065°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL-575/115v+ Ushio #1000671 (JS115v-575wX) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,000°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL 575/115X Halco CL, Quartz 575w/115v T-6 G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,000°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL575/Thorn G.E. #37533 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz 575w/120v T-6 G9.5*HS 3,200°K 16,500 Lum 300 HPL575/C(120v) G.E. #92433 CL, Quartz (HRG) 575w/120v T-6 LCL 60.2mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,200°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL 575 (120v) G.E. #37533 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz 575w/120v T-6 LCL 2.3/8" G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,200°K 16,500 Lum 300 HPL 575 (120v) G.E. #37626 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz, Single Coil Square Filmt. 575w/120v T-18mm 9.5x6.8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,250°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL-575120v+ Ushio #1000672 (JS120v-575wC) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/120v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL575T6/120v Osram/Sylvania #54817 CL, Quartz 575w/120v T-6 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 16,520 Lum 300 HPL575/LL/C (120v) G.E. #92435 CL, Quartz Long Life (HRG) 575w/120v T-6 LCL 60.2mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,050°K 12,360 Lum 1,500 HPL 575LL (120v) G.E. #37816 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz L. Life, S. Coil Sq. Filmt. 575w/120v T-18mm 10.5x6.9 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,050°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL-575/120X+ Ushio #1002283 (JS120v-575wX) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/120v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS 3,050°K 12,360 Lum 2,000 HPL575(230v) G.E. #37128 CL, Quartz, Single Coil Hexagonal Filmt. 575w/230v T-18mm 10x9.5 LCL 2.3/8" G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) Any Burn 3,200°K 15,000 Lum 300 HPL 575LL (230v) G.E. #37817 (?disc.) CL, Quartz, Long Life S.Coil Hex Filmt 575w/230v T-18mm 12x9.5 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos 3,050°K 11,780 Lum 1,500 HPL575w/230v Osram #54618 (#93728) CL, Quartz w. Heat Sink Base 575w/230v T-20mm LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (MOL 104mm) Universal Burn. Pos. 3,265°K 15,000 Lum 300 GKV*HS (230v) Philips #36374-7 (#6986P/S) CL, Quartz 575w/230v c-13D LCL 2.38" G9.5*HS 3,200°K 15,000 Lum 400 GLB*HS (230v) Philips #36375-4 (#6999P/S) CL, Quartz 575w/230v c-13D LCL 2.38" G9.5*HS 3,200°K 13,000 Lum 1,500 HPL-575/230v+ Ushio #1000673 (JS230v-575wCN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/230v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) ?3,200°K 14,900 Lum ?400 HPL-575/230X+ Ushio #1002233 (JS230v-575wXN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/230v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,050°K 11,780 Lum 1,500 HPL 575 (240v) G.E. #37131 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz, Single Coil Hex Filmt. 575w/240v T-18mm 10x9.5 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn Pos. 3,200°K 14,900 Lum 300 HPL 575LL (240v) G.E. #37818 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz, Long Life, S. Coil Hex Filmt. 575w/240v T-18mm 12x9.5 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,050°K 11,700 Lum 1,500 HPL575/240 Osram/Sylvania #54619 CL, Quartz 575w/240v T-6 G9.5*HS 15,000 Lum 400 HPL-575/240v+ Ushio #1000674 (JS240v-575wCN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/240v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,200°K 14,900 Lum 400 HPL-575/240X+ Ushio #1002234 (JS240v-575wXN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 575w/240v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,050°K 11,780 Lum 1,500 #6986P/S (230v) Philips #924541844200 CL, Quartz (GKV type w. Remov. Heat Sink) 600w/230v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,200°K 15,500 Lum 400 #6991P/S (230v) Philips #924542044200 CL, Quartz (GLB type w. Remov. Heat Sink) 600w/230v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,100°K 13,000 Lum 1,500 GKV*HS (240v) Philips #924541845500 (#6986P/S) CL, Quartz (GKV w. Remov. Heat Sink) 600w/240v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,200°K 15,500 Lum 400 GLB*HS (240v) Philips #924542045500 (#6991P/S) CL, Quartz (GLB w. Remov. Heat Sink) 600w/240v T-20mm 13x8.5mm LCL 60.5mm G9.5+HS “Compact Source” (Shock Res.) 3,100°K 13,000 Lum 1,500 HPL750T6/77v Osram/Sylvania #54825 CL, Quartz 750w/77v T-6 LCL 60.5mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 22,950 Lum 300 HPL 750 / 77v Ushio #1000676 CL, Quartz(JS 77v750w C) Low Seal Temp. 750w/77v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 22,950 Lum 300 HPL 750 G.E. #37823 (?disc.) (?Disc.) CL, Quartz, Single Coil Square Filmt. 750w/115v T-18mm 11.5x7.2 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,250°K 22,000 Lum 300 HPL750T6/115v Osram/Sylvania #54602 CL, Quartz 750w/115v T-6 LCL 60.5mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,265°K 21,000 Lum 300 HPL-750/115v+ Ushio #1000675 (JS115v-750wC) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 750w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS (*HS = Heat Sink Lamp Base) 3,250°K 21,900 Lum 300 HPL-750/115X+ Ushio #1003153 (JS115v-750wX) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 750w/115v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS 3,050°K 16,400 Lum 1,000 HPL750/C G.E. #92432 CL, Quartz 750w/120v T-6 LCL 60.2mm G9.5*HS Universal Burn 3,200°K 22,000 Lum 300 HPL-750/120v+ Ushio #1003144 (JS120v-750wC) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 750w/120v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS 3,250°K 21,900 Lum 300 HPL-750/120X+ Ushio #1003178 (JS120v-750wX) CL, Quartz Extended Life 750w/120v T-18.35mm 4-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Low Seal Temp. 3,050°K 16,400 Lum 2,000 HPL 750 (230v) G.E. #37824 (?disc.) CL, Quartz, Single Coil Hex Filmt. 750w/230v T-18mm 11.5x9.5 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,200°K 19,750 Lum 300 HPL-750/230v+ Ushio #1002289 (JS230v-750wCN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 750w/230v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS 3,200°K 19,750 Lum 300 HPL-750/230X+ Ushio #1003179 (JS230v-750wXN) CL, Quartz Extended Life 750w/230v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Low Seal Temp. 3,050°K 15,600 Lum 1,500 HPL 750 (240v) G.E. #37826 (?disc.) CL, Quartz, Single Coil Hex Filmt 750w/240v T-18mm 11.5x9.5 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Any Burn Pos. 3,200°K 19,750 Lum 300 HPL-750/240V+ Ushio #1003184 (JS240v-750wCN) CL, Quartz, Low Seal Temp. 750w/240v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS 3,200°K 19,750 Lum 300 HPL-750/240X+ Ushio #1003180 (JS240v-750wXN) CL, Quartz Extended Life 750w/240v T-18.35mm 6-C8 LCL 60.3mm G9.5*HS Low Seal Temp. 3,050°K 15,600 Lum 1,500 #### Jo-JotheSoundDog ##### Active Member lamps Hey Ship why not give an example of what type instrument for the different lamps. My specialty is sound, but I have done some lighting. I always wished I had a quick breakdown of instrument to lamp type. Just a thought. #### ship ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member The best source on the market for doing lamp/fixtures combinations is the Photometrics Handbook 2nd ED. by Robert C. Mumm - Broadway Press c1997, ISBEN #0-911747-37-0. It gives the basic lamps that are normally used with the fixtures and gives the photometrics data for most of the lights on the market. It is crucial as a design tool to anyone designing lights that want to know what they are going to be doing at a given throw range. Here is what I have collected: (Note there are other combinations that can be done with fixtures but these are the recommended lamps for the fixtures, and they don't copy well to this format.) Fixture / Lamp Combinations: Altman Inkie 3"Fresn:35Q/CL/DC, 75Q/CL/DC, ESR, ETC/ESP 100G16½/29DC, 125G16½DC #65Q 6"Fresn: BTL, BTM, BTN, BTP, BFE, DNW #75Q 8"Fresn: BVT, BVV, BVW, CWZ #1KAF-MPF 6"Fresn: BTR, EEX, BTL, BTN, BTM, BTP 7" #1000S-HM 5"Locat. Fresn: EGN, EGT, EGR 7" #2000L 6"Locat. Fresn: CYV, CYX, CYZ, DCT, FKK (CP41), BWA 10" #5000L 10"Locat. Fresn: DPY, CP29 #360Q ERS: EHB, EHC, EHD, EHF, EHG, FLK, HP600, HX601, HX400, HX401 4.5-1530Z-MT: EHD, EHC, EHB, EHG, EHF, 1KL6-30 / 1KL6-2040Z: FEL, FLK, EHH, EHD, EHG, EHF, FEP, EHC, EHB, HP600, HX601 Shakesphere: FLK, HX601, HX602, EHD, EHG, HP600 Q-Light: EJG, FCL, FDN, FHM, FCZ, FCM, EMD, FDF, EHM, EHZ Micro Strip: FTB, FTC, FTD, FTE, FTF, FTH Mini Strip: EXT/C, EXZ, FPA, FPC, FPB, EYF/C, FPB, EYF/C, EYJ/C, EYC/C R40 (6"oc.) Strip Light: R-40 520 (4.5"oc.)Strip: 60 - 100w. A-19 Incd. 528 (6"oc.) Strip: 150 - 200w. A-23, 300M/IF 537 (8"oc.) Strip: 300M/IF, 200PS/25 600 (RSC 8"oc.) Strip: EHM, FCL Single Cell Cyc: FHM, EHZ, FDN, FCZ, EMD, FCM, FDF, EJG, FDB, FFW Ground Cyc Light: EHZ, EJG, FCL, FCM, FDN, FHM. FCZ Sky Cyc (8"oc.)(Far Cyc): FDB, FFT, FGV, FGT HMI Star Par: CDM150T6/830, CMH150TU/830, ARC150TU/830, HQI/SE150WDX, HIT150w/G12/UVS/3K, UHI-S150DW/A, NOTE: 940 Series High Color Temp Avbl. Star Par: HP600, FLK, HX601, HX400, HX401, EHD, EHC, EHB #160 14"Scoop: EGK, EGE, EGG, EGJ #161 16"Scoop: FCM, FCL, FDN, Q500T3, EMD, FHM, FCZ, EHZ #261 16"Scoop: BWF, 1500Q CL/48, BWG #155 18"Scoop: DKX, DSE, DKZ, 1000IF, 750IF, 500IF, Q2000 4/95, DSF 100L Follow Spot: HMP575W/SE Comet Follow Spot: FLE Dyna/902 Follow Spot: DTJ, DPW Explorer Follow Spot: HMI 1200 Marc 350/Orbiter Follow Spot: EZT Satellite Follow Spot: HMI 575 Voyager Follow Spot: HTI 400 ARRI Flex 3" Locat. Fresn: FKW(CP 81), FRB(CP 82) 4" Locat. Fresn: FRK, FRG, FKW, FRE 5" Locat. Fresn: EGT, EGR Black Hole: ENH CCT Lighting Moon Beam: FFT, FGV, FDB Centry Old 8"ERS: CYX or BVW, BVT/BVV, CWZ, DEB, DNT, BWA, DNV, DNY Old 6"ERS - Radial (Not 360 Series): EGE, EGJ, EGG, EGM, DNS, DNT, EGD, EGF, DEB Old 8" Fresn.: DWT, Q1000T3/CL, FEY, FER Old 6" Fresn.: BFE, DNW 18" Scoop: 2M/PS52/34, 1500/IF, 1000/IF, 750/IF Clay Paky Golden Scan2 C11066: HMI 1200 W/GS Golden Scan2 C11067: HMI 575 W/GS Golden Scan3 C11068: HMI 575 Golden Scan3 C11069: HMI 1200 Golden Scan HPE C1150: HMI 1200 W/GS Stage Scan C11155: HMI 1200 W/GS Super Scan Zoom: HMI 1200 W/GS Coemar: Panorama Cyc 1800: (Old)MSI1800W Panorama Cyc Power: (New)MSD575, MSR 575/2 CF7: MSR700SA CF 1200 Spot: MSR1200SA Digiscan: HMI575w/GS, MSI 575, MSP 575, AMHK-575/GS Super Cyc: MSD 1200, MSR1200, MSR1200/2 Colortran Mini Ellipse: EHT, EVR, EHV, EVR, Q400 CL/MC, EYT, Q325 CL/MC, Q150 CL/M Zoom: FMR, FNA 18"Scoop: BWF Far Cyc: FGT, FFT Cyber Scan: DI-12S Diversitronics 3000: #0439 Ellipspin: ENH Emulator: XM150-13HS ETC Source Four: HPL Flower: Martin 150/2, HTI 150 Micro Flower: DRA Microfower: AR5 / DL35 Furmen: 7C7 Gemini: EVD GoBot: ELC Goya: MSR1200HR, HMI1200W/SE, ?DPY HES AF-1000: AF-1000HO-1, AF-1000SO Color Pro: ENH / ELH Color Pro FX: MSD 250/2 EC-1 / ES-1: MSR 575/2, MSD 575 EC-2: MSD250/2 Intellabeam: MSR700, MSR700/2 Studio Beam PC: MSR 700SA Studio Color: MSR575, MSR575/2, MSD 575 Studio 250: MSD 250/2 Studio Spot: MSR575/2, MSD 575 Cyberlight: MSR1200, MSR1200/2, HTI1200, MSD1200 Emulator: Xenon XM150-13HS Short Arc Technobeam: MSD250/2 Trackspot: QT8500, EVC/FGX (HLX), Turbo Cyber: MSR 1200SA X-Spot: MSR700SA Juno: 75Q/F/DC, ETB, ETF Kliegl Bros. Old 8" Fresn: DWT, FER, FEY 3½” (RSC) ERS: EHR, EHP, FDA, FAD, Q150T4/CL Beam Projector: CWZ, BVT, BVV, BVW Lighting & Electronics 6"Fresn: BFE, DNW, Mini Spot: DYS Beam Projector: BFE, DNW 14" Scoop: DKX, DSE, DSF Live Pro: MSR1200SA Little Light: Q-5 Ludwig Pani, Plano Convex Spotlight: (CP 79), (CP 43) Beam Projector P1001: 1KW/24v, D39d, Mirror Domed Beam Projector P250: 250 W/24V, E27 Mirror Domed Beam Projector P500: 500 W/24V, E40 Mirror Domed Lycian 1207 Follow Spot: BWA 1209 Follow Spot: HMI575GS 1236 Follow Spot: FLE L1262/4 SuperArc 350 Follow Spot: EZT(MARC 350) 1266/7 Follow Spot: HTI400W/24 1271 Follow Spot: UMI1200, DMI1200, HMI1200 1272 Follow Spot: MSR1200HR, HMI1200W/SE 1275 Follow Spot: 1200HB Metal Halide 1278 Follow Spot: MSR 2500 1290 Follow Spot: Osram XBO-2000W/HS.OFR, Yumex YXL-20SC, ORC XM2000HS, Hanovia XH2000HS, LTI LTIX-2000w-HS 1294 Follow Spot: LTI LTIX-2500w-HS, Osram XBO2500w/HS, Yumex YXL25SCFS 3K 1294 Follow Spot: LTI LTIX-3000w-HS, Osram XBO3000w/HS.ofr, Yumex YXL-30SC 1294 Super Arc Follow Spot: LTI LTIX-4500w-HS, Osram XBO4000w/HS, YXL40SC Martin Acrobat: Philips (50hr) & Osram (300hr) Q250w Adventurer: Quartz 12v/100w. CX-2: Osram ELC 250w. (50hr) Philips ELC 250w (300hr) Destroyer: Q250w. 300hr, 8,400 Lum. 24 V/ 250 W M33 halogen lamp (P/ N 346007). Discovery: Quartz 12v/100w Fibersource QFX150: HQI-150w. Osram HQI-R 150 W discharge lamp Imagescan: MSD 200, MSD 250 Juggler: 24v/250w. (300 or 50hr) Lynx: Quartz 12v/100w. 12V/100W EFP cold reflec-tor Halogen MAC250: MSD250/2, HSD250, MSD200 MAC300: MSD250/2, HSD250, MSD200 MAC500: MSR575/2, MSD575, HSR575 MAC600: MSR575/2, MSD575, HSR575/2 Mac 2000: HMI1200W/S Magic Moon: 12V/100W EFP cold reflec-tor Mini Star: EHJ, #64655, Philips #7748S Mini Mac Maestro: CDM Mini Mac Profile/Wash: HTI 152(Martin150/2), HTI 150 (Martin 150), CSS MX-1: Philips (300hr) or Osram(50hr) - 24v.250w MX-4: CDM, GE - Arcstream 150w. PAL 1200E: MSR 1200, HSR1200 Punisher: Q250w. 300hr. 8,400 Lum. Raptor: 24v/250w. (300 or 50hr) Robocolor: MSD 200 Robocolor II: ENH Robocolor III: HTI 152, HTI 150, GE: CSS 150 Roboscan Pro 218, 400 & 518: MSD200 Roboscan: Pro 518II: MSD250/2 Roboscan 804 & 805: 150w. HLX Roboscan 812: HTI 152, CSS, HTI 150 ?Roboscan: EFR / EZK / JCR Roboscan Pro 918: MSR575/2, MSD575 Roboscan 1004: 250w. HLX Roboscan Pro 1220: MSR1200, MSR1200/2, HTI 1200 RoboZap: ENH RoboZap 1200: MSR 1200 Spinner / Wheeler: DRA Star Flash: Q300w 75hr./ 7,700Lum SynchroZap: MSD250/2, HSD250 Voyager: Quartz 12v/100w., FGA(Disc.) (EFP, 64637, JCR12v-100wB/xx) MR-11: FTD, FTF/L, FTE, FTB, FTC, FTH MR-13: EXW MR-16: BAB, ENX, ESD ESX, EXN, EXT, EXZ, EYC, EYF EYJ, EZK, FPA, FPC, FPB, FRB, FRA, FMW EZY, EYS, EXN, EXK, FNV, ENH, EXX Mini Beam: MSR400 Mole Richardson: Mole Light: FAY, FBJ, DXK, FCX, FCW (Thomas) Mole Light: DWE Ellipso: BWA Music Stand: 25T10, 25T10/IF, 40T10 Omni System Light Fiber ( PSL): HQI-TS Omni Light: EHZ, FDN Pani Plano Convex: CP 79 Optkinetics:Solar 250: EHJ, M33, A1/223 Solar 575: Ba575w/SE, MSR575/HR, HMI575w/SE Club Strobe Flower: QCA 48/22 Mol 5.1/2" wire Terra Strobe: QXA 430 ?400w. PAR 20: JDR/E26&E27, PAR 20 Phoebus Mighty Arc II Follow Spot: HTI 400 Phoebus Titan Follow Spot: HMI 1200 W/SE Pinspot: #4515 Peacock: EVD Power Cat Fan: 40S11N/MV Pulsant: Martin 150/2, HTI 150 Quasar: Martin 150/2, HTI 150 Ray Light: DYS, JCD300, EKB Reich & Vogel Beam Projector: G-40 Silver Bowl 1Kw/24v. Radium 578K Mgl. PF - Wire Lead Ripple Machine: J-130, Q1000T3/CL, FEY, FER Solar 250: EHJ Solar 575: Ba575w/SE Star Strobe: SS-15 Strand 3" Locat. Fresn: ESS, ETC, ESR, FEV Bambino 6" Locat. Fresn: CYX, CYV, CYZ Vega 14" Locat. Fresn: DTY, (CP83) Mini Zoom: EYJ, EXZ Beam Projector 4122: BTR, BTL, BTN Beam Projector 4125: BVW, BVT Beam Projector 13011(BeamLite 500): E40 Base, 500w., 24v. Beam Projector 13021 (BeamLite): K39d Base 1Kw/24v. Follow Spot: CSI String Light: C7CL4, 7C7W, 25GC/CD2 Strong 575 Follow Spot: HMI575W/SE (Metal Halide) Super Trouper Follow Spot: HSR1200 Super Trouperette Follow Spot: HTI 400 Roadie Follow Spot: HTI 400w/SE Xenon Trouper: LTIX-700w-HS, XBO700w/HS.OFR, XH700HS, YXL7s 1K Xenon Super Trouper: LTIX1000w-HS, XBO1000w/HS.ofr, XH1,000HS, XH1000HS 1.6K Xenon Super Trouper: LTIX-1600w-HS, XBO1600w/HS, XH1600HS, YXL16S 2K Xenon Super Trouper: LTIX-2000w-H, XBO2000w/H, XH2000ST, YXL20RFS Xenon Super Trouper II: LTIX-2000w-HS, XBO2000w/HS, XH2000STII, YXL20SCFS Xenon Gladiator II: LTIX-2500w/HS, XBO2500w/HS, XH2500HS, YXL25SCFS Xenon Gladiator III: LTIX-3000w-H, XBO3000w/H, XH3000HW, YXL30RFS Strong Xenotech Skytracker: 2K: LTIX-2000w-XS, XM2000PII, & LTIX2000w-XT, UXL-20SA 4K: LTIX-4000w-XS, XM4000PII & LTIX-4000w-XT, UXL-40SA 7K: LTIX-7000w-XS, XM7000PII, & LTIX-7000w-XT, UXL-70SA Times Square Mini Zoom: EYJ, EXZ Victory II Projector: QT8500, HLX VariLight VL2C: HTI 600 W/SE VL-4: HMI400W/SE VL-5Arc: MSR 575 VL-5: Philips #71-2529 1.2KW, 1Kw (100, 120 & 230VAC) VL-5/5B: MSR 1200 VL-6: MSR400SA VL-7: MSR700SA VL2201: MSR400SA VL2202/2402: MSR700SA Wildfire: ?CSS, ?MHL, ?MHM100&102, MT402, MV250 How's that for a starting list? Lots of fixtures and lamp combinations out there and that's even before you get into differences between one brand and another such as the above HPL 375w/C from Osram and Ushio with the Osram version of it being dimmer. #### Jo-JotheSoundDog ##### Active Member Lamps and fixtures Thanks SHip you rock. #### wolf825 ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member Hiya... VERY cool list, Ship. Since you're the lamp guy, I have a couple questions I've been hoping to get a firm answer on. Perhaps you can help.. First Question is about the altman 360Q's..and maybe you can shed some info on it. I have been recently told to try the GLC lamps (these were made for the new Strand fixtures) in certain versions of the 360's for longer life, and also was told that lamp selection for 360's is primarily based on the type of reflector version in the Altmans. Only difference I have been told in the reflectors is that the "hammering" is smaller in the new ones vs the larger "square hammering" in the older reflectors. Can you confirm this is true or not, and that a different lamp should be used in different reflectors? Is there a way to tell the different reflectors other then guessing by looking? I have been using FLK's in some older 360's, and they tend to blow out after 100 hours(but they are cheapo FLK's)...and HX600's in 360's have been better but not by much. Trying to find a good lamp (to give a 1k output without using an FEL) but with the reflector topic no in my mind, I'm not sure which way to go. In the past I have always used FEL's etc, but the HX and FLK's are brighter, and use less power in a dimmer, and these 360's need the help cause the output of some of them is horrible no matter how much you bench or clean. Suggestions for figureing out the best lamp? These vary in age from 5- 10+ year old Altmans, and all have the new speedcaps. I'm also thinking the cap is part to blame for some of the poor output..but thats another topic<g>. Second question--is more of a "myth" question.. The HPL575's used in S-4's that are listed at 115v, is it true that to get the output(lumens), the lamps are deliberately made at strictly 115v (instead of 120v) to overtax them when run at 120v, for extra brightness? Just curious...always interested in another opinion that could be helpful. Cheers, --Wolf #### ship ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member GLC lamps (these were made for the new Strand fixtures) That’s what Strand Claims in certain versions of the 360's for longer life, That would be the GLA for the long life and also was told that lamp selection for 360's is primarily based on the type of reflector version in the Altmans. ??? it’s the same basic G9.5 base with a 60.3 to 60.5mm LCL Only difference I have been told in the reflectors is that the "hammering" is smaller in the new ones vs the larger "square hammering" in the older reflectors. Can you confirm this is true or not, The new reflectors are rated for the dichroic lamps be it HX-600/FLK series or GLA series. Higher heat plus they might be also dichroic coated for the cool beam and passing the heat thru the reflector. In my experience, use what you have until it wears out. There are no adverse effects other than that. That said, there are some early lot numbers of the 360Q reflector with an opening that’s a bit small to be fitting a T-6 lamp in it. This could cause a problem. and that a different lamp should be used in different reflectors? That’s the Altman official company line due to liability. Trust me, there are no real differences in heat between a EHG and a FLK/GLA lamp. Is there a way to tell the different reflectors other then guessing by looking? Nope, you have to look at them. I have been using FLK's in some older 360's, and they tend to blow out after 100 hours(but they are cheapo FLK's)...and HX600's in 360's have been better but not by much. Same lamp. The HX600 is the Thorn/GE temporary designation of the lamp from when it was designed. The FLK is the ANSI lamp based upon the HX-600 design. It’s all in the brand. Wiko might be cheap if this is your lamp, but quality control can be a bit sketchy. Check your dimmer curve to ensure it’s giving a lamp warming power. Also you might set your dimmer curve down a little considering these are 115v lamps usually used over voltage. The FLK/HX-600 is also a very fragile lamp (High output/short life) if you switch to a HX-603 or GLA/HX-605 for long life, or HX-602 or GLC/HX-604 the 604 & 605 being Thorn’s designation of it, you should have shock resistant lamps, and lamps with better more hearty filaments. I recommend the Philips GLA lamps, they are the best for output and life with shock resistance. Trying to find a good lamp (to give a 1k output without using an FEL) Try the HX-754 or HX-755 new from Thorn. They are only available from Nelson Lamps and all the data is not available for them yet - my personal little war with GE, but I expect they have the exact same performance as a HPL 750w/C lamp from GE which is 5,500 Lumens less output from 2,7500 Lumens on a FEL. L.E. Nelson Sales Corp (702)367-3656 Nelson doesn’t have a website... By the way, the BWN is more powerful yet than a FEL You could also go with a Ushio HX-800 lamp. It has the same 22,000 Lumens in output, and is the same lamp for all intensive purposes. but with the reflector topic no in my mind, I'm not sure which way to go. In the past I have always used FEL's etc, FEL lamps are not rated for Altman 360Q fixtures, only the Zooms. If you have not had a problem with reflectors using the 1Kw lamps, you won’t with anything below. Major difference is anything is going to have a smaller filament than a FEL lamp so even if it’s luminous output is less, and wattage less, with a more point source of light, it’s going to probably put out about the same amount of light. Let’s talk lamp bases. That should be your real worry. The original lamp base Altman #58-0017 as well as #58-0018 the high temp one with a heat sink are discontinued. They don’t work well with high wattage lamps much less the dichroic lamps anyway. That does not mean you need to change lamp bases, like with the reflector and gate reflector assemblies, they are prone to wear out quicker but use them until they do. Than buy the Altman #97-1580 lamp base. It’s much improved. Otherwise, Ushio sells the C3A lamp base. Many people swear by this lamp base, and for all intensive purposes, it is the same, just not recognized by Altman or any known testing company for say a UL certification. but the HX and FLK's are brighter, and use less power in a dimmer, and these 360's need the help cause the output of some of them is horrible no matter how much you bench or clean. Check the lenses, are they green or blue? Suggestions for figureing out the best lamp? These vary in age from 5- 10+ year old Altmans, and all have the new speedcaps. I'm also thinking the cap is part to blame for some of the poor output..but thats another topic<g>. Explain please, I’m not aware of such a complaint. Altman fixtures, I know them so well. I have exact notes on this whole subject in depth if you would like, including data passed along from the engineers at Altman. By the way, I was one of the first people in the US to have a HX-600 lamp. Robert Altman personally sent it to me following a phone conversation with him - me a young college having written a nasty letter of complaint after I did not get some parts in time for a show. Long story. Very cool lamp and I was impressed. Still use them in my Altman 3.5Q5 fixtures. #### ship ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member Second question--is more of a "myth" question.. The HPL575's used in S-4's that are listed at 115v, is it true that to get the output(lumens), the lamps are deliberately made at strictly 115v (instead of 120v) to overtax them when run at 120v, for extra brightness? Yes it’s true that most of the high output dichroic lamps are designed to operate over voltage. You can get 120v versions of these lamps especially in the HPL series, but yuck - it’s brown. Think about voltage loss from the dimmers and voltage drop to the fixture. Meter your fixture and see what your actual power is. It’s probably going to be in the range of 117v. Now consider this data: Volts - A measurement of the electromotive force in an electrical circuit or device expressed in volts. Voltage can be thought of as being analogous to the pressure in a waterline. The effect of voltage on a lamp will cause a significant change in lamp performance. For any particular lamp, light output varies by a factor of 3.6 times and life varies inversely by a factor of 12 times any percentage variation in supply. For every 1% change in supply voltage light output will rise by 3.6% and lamp life will be reduced by 12%. This applies to both DC and AC current. Most standard line voltage lamps are offered at 130v. Since most line voltage power is applied at 120volts, the result is a slight under voltaging of the filament. The effect of this is substantially enhanced lifehours, protection from voltage spikes and energy cost savings. Voltage and Light Output: The effect of voltage on the light output of a lamp is ±1% voltage over the rated amount stamped on the lamp, gives 3.1/2% more light or Lumens output but decreases the life by 73% and vise a versa. Do not operate quartz Projection lamps at over 110% of their design voltage as rupture might occur. GE Projection, Ibid p.13 It also has an effect on color temperature, just have not logged it into my notes yet. Basically, as the voltage goes up, color temperature follows to a small percentage. Thus in addition to the higher starting color temperature of dichroic halogen/xenon lamps, they operate at an even higher appairent brightness or more blue light than a normal halogen lamp. Just curious...always interested in another opinion that could be helpful. If it were not for the fact that I'm constantly building upon my notes and adding lamp data, I would say the notes might be interesting. Very long but interesting to post in full. Really long. Anyway does this help? More questions? #### wolf825 ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member ------ ship said: GLC lamps (these were made for the new Strand fixtures) That’s what Strand Claims ship said: ------- hehehehe... one of many claims<g>. Thank you VERY much for the info on the lamps, I will give the GLA's a try for sure. I will also look into some of the others you mentioned and try and see which ones work best in my fixtures and last longer. I have printed out your entire reply to review. I'm sure I will have a few more questions. -------- Let’s talk lamp bases. That should be your real worry. The original lamp base Altman #58-0017 as well as #58-0018 the high temp one with a heat sink are discontinued. They don’t work well with high wattage lamps much less the dichroic lamps anyway. That does not mean you need to change lamp bases, like with the reflector and gate reflector assemblies, they are prone to wear out quicker but use them until they do. Than buy the Altman #97-1580 lamp base. It’s much improved. Otherwise, Ushio sells the C3A lamp base. Many people swear by this lamp base, and for all intensive purposes, it is the same, just not recognized by Altman or any known testing company for say a UL certification. but the HX and FLK's are brighter, and use less power in a dimmer, and these 360's need the help cause the output of some of them is horrible no matter how much you bench or clean. Check the lenses, are they green or blue? ------- In regards to the lenses, some are green, but overall they are an awful yellow amber color. Placed upon a white paper, they are very amber compared to most lenses. We have gone thru and replaced several lenses, but it has not helped matters much. As for the bases, they have all been replaced with new cap ends and bases 3 years ago (before I arrived). However they are still a problem. We have had a severe arcing & corrosion problem with the bases in the past--and some of the bases do not hold lamps well. I have solved, temporarily, a lot of the arcing problems with cramolin paste (now Calilube copper), but "the dip" is a mere bandaid on a problem that needs replacing. The old flat ended caps have been replaced with the new "speed cap" as it is known in this area, the altman cap with the plastic ring and the "source-4 style" lamp adjustment rings in the center. As I said in a later part of this post--I believe those to be a part of the problem with the light output of some fixtures, and to explain: as I have done regular maintenance on some of the dimmer fixtures with caps, I find everything in the fixture to be in good condition, but the lamp and reflector do not appear to line up as well (with the lamp in proper place) as the original flat altman caps did, and it comes down to the seating pins in the cap line up but do not seat the lamp far enough down. When I have changed the cap back to the orginal style (we have a few around for backup) I find the light to perform much better. Which leads me to believe there is a problem with some of the caps or, moreso, just how the lamp sits in the newer caps (further back) as opposed to the old ones. Did I explain that well enough? I haven't worked on altman fixtures in quite a few years--been spoiled with S4's most of the years...but I notice drastically that these Altmans in this theater seem to have much more problems and output problems, then I recall ever having with Altmans in the past--they are die-hard fixtures and still a good choice for lighting. I'm not a fan of the two center rings for "benching" a fixture as I was born on adjusting with 3 screws, but benching some of these units just seems to thru the lamp furthur out of reflector to where its totally ineffective. This theater is going to change fixtures in another year or two to S4's, but I would like to get the most and best out of these fixtures I do have to work with. From using Altmans in the past and upkeeping them, these fixtures are quite a difference in the ones I used to work with in performance (the output on a lot is anywhere from 60-80% what it "should" be and I'm perplexed as to why I cannot get them to do what I know they can do). Again--I tend to think it has to do with the lamps and these speed caps. I wish I had the original caps and bases to start from there to troubleshoot, but over the years before I arrived here there were many folks before who "knew better" (heh) and they fixed what wasn't broken...thus breaking it<g>. I have taken it upon myself (like I do wherever I go) to do the best and get the best performance with what I have to work with, but at the same time I have gone and found 6x12 lenses in 6x9's and vica versa, from previous folks before me. <sigh> Your suggestions on the Altmans is greatly appreciated. Thanks, I appreciate your input and expertise very much. cheers, --W #### ship ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member Interesting, the speed cap. Never seen one, but in your analysis you say putting the old cap on solved the problem. To me that says as you theorize that the seat on the new cap is too high. I'm not aware of a shorter LCL lamp available for the fixtures so that means either they are seriously out of adjstment based upon the three screw lamp bases when they go out of bench focus, or there is something odd going on here. I would say call Altman, ask for Jay if possible, he is one of the "good guys" there. http://www.altmanltg.com/ Explain your problem and the putting on of the old lamp base solve and see what he says. Than post it because I'm curious. Wonder if it's possible you have Shakesphere caps on the fixtures and given a new design they don't sit in the same place for a good bench focus. That would certainly explain the problem though I have not played with the new Altman fixture to know for sure. Send me a E-picture of the lamp base otherwise, I'll look it up on my parts disk or catalog from them and verify it. Otherwise, what would even be easier yet is if you went to the website and looked at their parts manuals for the fixtures and compared your base to that of the Shakesphere. What they have available on-line is very complete. Might be able to find the proper lamp bases on E-Bay or another resale website either by someone selling them or you posting a request. Could be cheap enough. #### ship ##### Senior Team Emeritus Premium Member I clicked onto page 45 of the parts manual disk and it shows the Speed cap. Interesting... Never seen one before or remember noting it. Fairly basic, most likely, they are out of bench focus. I might suggest taking all fixtures down for a cleaning before next show, and while doing so bench focusing them to their proper settings. Probably about time anyway. Though you seem to know what you are doing with caring for them. How does the beam look in spot focus? Is the ring balanced? Since there does not seem to be a height adjustment, other than verifying the lamps are fully seated, not much that should throw off the seat height. The contact at Altman is Jay Perez to be more specific. Good guy, one that will track down answers for you. As for the lamps arcing and not holding well, that's wear and a good indication of a need to replace the lamp base. Are the lamp bases aluminum with large heat sinks? They have been known to have problems and are replaced by ones that are more porcelain at the base. A new base is about$15.00 so you would have to budget accordingly.

How does the product you use for a deoxident hold up to the heat? I have been testing such products for the last year or two and have my own that seems to work well but am still interested. If the de-oxident you are using doesn't hold up to the heat, it could increase the problems even more.

By the way, if you put a new lamp into an arched lamp base, all it's going to do is destroy the new lamp's base especially if your de-oxident is not preforming it's job. Same goes with a set of bad lamp pins destroying a good lamp base. Loose pins in a base will also cause arcing.

After the lamp base issues and bench focus, not much I can say. Shouldn't be problems otherwise. Loose the green lenses, that cuts down on light output.

Interested to hear more.

#### ship

##### Senior Team Emeritus
Re: something of interest

Here is something of interest I wrote to a response to another forum that might be of interest here.

If I went with the identical lamp that's in this fixture, are you saying that it would be a more "brown appearing lamp"? You made that reference but am wondering if there is a lamp that is a more white appearing lamp as well. In the application that I will be using these lights, the distance to the stage is approvimately 20 feet. I personally think that 575w is a bunch, although I am planning on hooking it up to a 600w per channel dim pack. Is it better to have the wattage there if needed, and just dim it when not? That sounds logical to me

A specific answer to your question would be no, installing an identical lamp to one that’s in the fixture will not appear more brown, it will appear the same. Answering what I think is your real question, installing the same HPL 575w/115vX lamp in the fixture and dimming it down will make that lamp appear more brown than installing a lesser wattage lamp and not dimming it or only dimming it slightly. Amber Shift. Get out a stage lighting book, most will cover the subject. A lamp operating at or over it’s rated voltage will appear more white than one that is dimmed. With color temperature, distance has little effect on the appearance of the light’s color. The color of a beam at 20' is the same as the color of a 100' beam. It’s output that drops the further away you get. Output of a dimmed lamp verses that of a lesser wattage lamp is effected the same by distance. Light is light no matter if it comes from a dimmer or not.

The major choices you need to figure is lamp life, maximum output desired and cost effectiveness. If your fixtures need to give out as much light as possible, and you can budget for shorter life lamps, those are the ones to choose. If lamp life is your major consideration over output, than longer life lamps should be chosen. If you need long life lamps but at a certain amount of intensity, than you would need to use a higher wattage lamp to achieve the same intensity. If you need less intensity, and only have so much wattage available, than you will have to sacrifice life for output. If you plan to leave your lights dimmed, than they will be further extended in life but will loose the color temperature that’s the major selling point of the lamp. In that case, installing a lower wattage less life lamp in your fixture will be better to preserve the color temperature. Such lamps will cost more money in the long run to keep replacing, but will save money in size of dimmers needed to operate them and energy costs. Lots of things to consider.

Here is a much more detailed description of what’s going on. If you can follow it, you will learn a lot about lamps and the factors that go into design of them. Not all about them, I’m even still learning, but a good part specifically about color temperature and life. Many more details yet.

Lamp color temperatures, wattages and life or at least small tidbits of the equation.

A lamp that appears more brown is an observation of it having a lower color temperature than your mental reference color appearance of what a light should look like by memory or visually in comparison to other beams of light near it. It’s subjective unless verified by a light meter or individual lamp specification test data. Color appearance is dependant upon many things such as the angle you view it at especially in reference angle to other beams of light, surface reflection and coating the beam of light is bouncing off of, differences between beams in similar areas, operating voltage and dimmer intensity - amber shift, fixture efficiency and lens characteristics, age of lamp with some lamps, and design values of it, etc.

In other words, operating a 115v lamp at 120v will be causing the filament to heat up more and thus give off a slight increase in color temperature which is directly related to the temperature the filament is operating at up to the filament’s maximum usable temperature. Beyond that, you can also use color boosting filters at a slight loss of light to boost the color temperature of the lamp. However, since lenses and reflectors kind of filter a beam of light while it bounces off or passes thru them, this will also effect the beam’s color and output dependant upon their efficiency or purity. Color temperature unlike output is not effected by distance as long as there is not atmospheric filters involved in the light.

Color temperature is also related to light output in it’s spectral graph of the emissions from the burning source. The spectral graph as opposed to the spectral curve is a slightly more accurate telling of lamp specific output in that it shows spikes of light output at certain nanometers of wavelength as opposed to rounding them out into a more general curve of output with the average output being what color temperature the lamp is rated for burning at.

Burn salt, and it gives off a certain color temperature in general - sodium vapor lamps, but more specifically, it gives off a wide range of colors both visible and not, corresponding to spikes in output in certain areas of color temperature as plotted on a spectral graph. (The same type of thing astronomers use to get data on distant stars.) The pressure, dichroic coatings and gas fillings of a lamp have a large factor in an incandescent lamp on what color temperature they burn at, or what spikes that lamp’s spectral graph has it’s spikes at. A incandescent vacuum lamp is going to have a lower color temperature than a Nitrogen filled lamp, and that’s less than a Xenon lamp because with the pressure, those chemicals allow the filament to burn hotter without burning up. They also effect certain parts of the light as plotted by adding their own composition when burning up to that of the spectral graph for a normal filament. Krypton for instance would have more spikes in the green area than Xenon. But this part is my assumption because the gas is not really burning. It is however to some degree incandessing and filtering the light providing and blocking certain wavelengths of otherwise normal tungsten incandescence.

Other factors such as halogen gas or dichroic coatings will also effect the operating temperature of the filament in allowing it to safely operate hotter. Halogen because it is replenishing the filament by re-depositing what burns up and falls off back on the filament so it can burn again once cool. The lamp is able to operate at the higher temperature in burning itself up but being re-supplied to a point as long as that re-depositing of the filament is even and not just in certain areas of it. It’s not perfect and the lamp will eventually have a part of the filament not having enough mass to resist breaking, but it in general extends lamp life given it’s operating at the right temperature. A dichroic lamp coating such as on a HPL/HX-600 lamp, takes the IR heat out of the beam and reflects it back to the filament letting it operate at a higher temperature by convection than applied voltage. In other words, it is getting it’s source of heat not only from the voltage applied to it, but it is also heating up by getting heat reflected from the light it is putting out, back on the part that’s generating the heat making it heat up more yet above the voltage applied. Since this will cause the filament to deteriorate faster, there had to be improvements in the filament design and halogen cycle to implement this.

A 500w Halogen lamp in general is as bright as a 750w incandescent lamp, as is bright as a 375w Dichroic Halogen lamp in the most broad sense. It’s also going to have a higher color temperature due to the improvements because the filament is allowed to burn brighter - at least in parts of it’s spectral spikes such as on the higher wavelengths. A Halogen lamp and a Dichroic Halogen lamp might be rated for the same color temperature, but because of the heat applied to the filament, a larger portion of it’s average spikes will be in the higher wavelengths. Both lamps have the same average color temperature in reference to the range they burn at, but the Dichroic lamp is going to have a larger percentage of spikes in the higher spectrum. Thus lamps rated for a color temperature based upon a spectral curve is misleading in actual color of light given out especially when not corrected for in the case of a 115v lamp it operated over voltage.

In specific reference to your lamps HPL 575w/115v Extended life lamps, the individual color temperature or color appearance of a HPL lamp in a S-4 fixture (also dependant upon it’s type of reflector because if I remember right, ETC makes two types of reflector at least for the PAR cans,) is very much dependant upon the brand of the lamp and what mix or chemicals are used in it’s makeup. This data is published in the lamp specifications for each individual lamp along with life and luminous output. These published specifications change from year to year because how a lamp is made or what percentages of gas or types of materials used for it change year to year and lot number to lot number. One brand to another, due to differing manufacturing processes, materials and mixtures, output will be different in many cases be very noticeable such as the case between brands of HMI1200w/GS lamps and refrenced in the manufacturer data or at least in the spectral spikes that are a little harder to see but are still there and present many times as you gel or dim the lamps.

Short of using a calibrated light meter on each brand and type of lamp, the best way to tell what the color temperature is going to be of specific brands of lamps is by using the published data on them. Remember how many factors go into what a color temperature appears to be thus how in-accurate it depending upon what you perceive should be in the color, such as efficiency of the fixture and even where you stand. Differences in brand to your eyes in comparing lamps unless drastic in difference such as say over 1,000°K is hard to tell. That said, as I inferred, the Ushio lamps by specification have better color temperature in general than Osram HPL or GLA lamps. That’s based upon the data each company has provided at least this year and it’s probably going to change. Will you be able to tell the difference between even a GE and Philips lamp with only a few hundred degrees difference in color temperature (taken as a example and not specific lamps) given the data provided is accurate to the lot number of lamp you use? Probably not with your eyes. However, once such lamps are filtered with the same color, since individual brands of lamp have a different actual color temperature and thus different spectral graph spikes, they will effect the gel or even paint on a stage differently. A lamp with a red gel such as say a RX27 will react differently with a 2,950°K lamp than with a 3,050°K lamp in general and specifically with spikes of light on the lower end of the spectrum.

Wiko/Eiko/SoLux, Philips, Osram/Sylvania, GE/Thorn/Koto, Ushio/Reflekto as the major brands of bulb many times if ANSI coded will have similar outputs, life and color temperature on paper, or if accurate for the current catalog, slightly different outputs, it all depends upon the brand and lamps change year to year or lot to lot.

How they rate their bulbs can also be wishful thinking, inaccuracies in the test data, different mixtures or materials year to year, even hour to hour, or even atmospheric or locution differences on the test facilities. Than there is what is being tested such as initial verses mean output or in life what they call the average life of a bulb, be it 40% burning out after a period of time, 10% burning out, 50%, etc and how large that sample was, across how many lot numbers of the test sample and how controlled the experiment is, or how many they thru out. It can also be rated by how many lamps in that sample blew out or what percentage of the expected life the lamps blew out at. For instance, in Osram - Technology and Application, Tungsten Halogen Low Voltage Lamps Photo Optics p.32
“The lamp specified for tungsten halogen Low Voltage lamps is based upon defined “average lamp life.” This is the time after which, on a statistical average, half of a not too small number of lamps fail. “Fail” means that the filament burns out. To be on the safe side, lamp manufacturers as a rule set the design value slightly above the promised “average lamp life.” This modifies the above definition to the time after which, on statistical average, half the lamps may fail. The lamp life distribution of individual lamps in a group approximately follows a Gaussian bell-shaped curvve. Lamp manufacturers have the following to say about the width of this curve: individual lamp life is at least 70% of average lamp life. If for example the average lamp life is 100 hours, every lamp will last for at least 70 hours, except for premature failures - the black sheep of mass production which can never be entirely avoided. A mandatary percentage limit laid down internationally - the AQL - is specified for these premature failures (AQL stands for “Accepted Quality Level” and is part of a comprehensive statistical quality system in common use internationally, see DIN 40080) the AQL value varies for different groups of lamps (general lighting service, photo-optic applications, etc.) The tungsten halogen LV lamps under consideration here normally have an AQL of 6.5 which means in practical terms that 6.5% of the lamps in a sufficiently large random sample do not have to achieve the individual lamp life. In accordance with the lamp life definition, they may fail shortly after being switched on for the first time or, as in the above example, after 69 hours.”

Lots of differences between brands in addition to differing materials and quality of workmanship going into individual lamps that would be factors both in specified data and spectral graph output. Lots of quality control or AQL levels that can be used. In general, once you get a brand of lamp, stick with it for similar fixtures doing the same work. Differing materials making up the lamp will even react to voltage applied to it differently. Granted most of what I am writing is in the most finite of measurements on the data. Differences between HPL lamps can be large by using the specified numbers even if the actual visual differences are possibly too small to be seen. Differences between say FLK lamps in general on paper are not noticeable and only the spectral curve and materials and quality of the lamp have effects that can be judged but almost certainly not noticed unless you are dimming them or filtering them.

By the way, a Osram HPL 575w/C lamp has a very slightly larger color temperature than a Ushio lamp by the specifications, but the same is not the case in the HPL 375w/C lamp. For me at least, the lamp and it’s heat sink on the Osram lamp don’t have the bond of a Ushio lamp to it’s heat sink and the Osram lamp frequently pulls out of the heat sink. That’s why I don’t buy them. even at a lower cost, I don’t even consider Wiko lamps for S-4 fixtures. Sometimes, it’s not lamp data that is a factor in buying lamps, in the case of a 2Kw CYX lamp, the shipping boxes that package GE and Philips lamps doesn’t support the bulb well enough for it to survive being bounced around in the back of a truck as a spare lamp well enough for me to buy them even if more in output. Ushio and Osram CYX lamps hold up better to transport and thus I buy them. For me, the Osram lamp is cheaper than the Ushio lamp so it’s my primary lamp in spite of any loss in output. Is the packaging of a Ushio HPL lamp better than that of a GE or Osram lamp, good debate, but not much different in quality once it does some travel or gets wet.

Try lighting a bloody scene on stage with a incandescent plano-convex fixture such as a Bantam Super Spot, than with a S-4 fixture. You can even use a radial mounted Altman #360 for this. Use the same voltage, percentage of dimmer, and say a 750w lamp in the Plano Convex verses a 375w lamp in the ETC fixture. Not only especially with gel will each beam of light appear much different, but the color of the blood, and it’s sparkle or pop will be totally different. Now start to dim them. As you dim a lamp, you get “amber shift” going on. That’s the result of the lamp’s filament burning cooler and not putting out as much light, but also the filament’s temperature not burning at the same color temperature or heat from the voltage, thus it drops as you dim the lamp. There will be a different dimming curve between types of lamps that can be noticeable. In general, when you dim a lamp however, it will be effected by amber shift. That’s why it is better to put a 375w S-4 lamp into a fixture as opposed to leaving it on a dimmer with a 575w lamp to provide the same intensity while dimmed. Lamp might last longer, the intensity might be the same, but the output in color is going to be crap - like lighting the stage with candles. Since different lamps have different places they spike in color - or groupings of color’s the filament is burning at, a lamp when dimmed will drop in output and color temperature following that graph with the spikes that are largest lingering the longest in the light beam still present in the dimmed beam of light. That’s dependant upon the chemical fillers making up the lamp and what color temperature or heat it’s burning at. After a certain point, all filament lamps will no longer have the benefits of the filler boosting color temperature and will burn similar. A HPL lamp with a dichroic coating reflecting heat back to the filament, and having a halogen (Bromine or Iodine) and Krypton or Xenon filler will have a different normal operating color temperature than a lamp having a nitrogen/argon filler because it cannot burn as hot in suppressing the rate of vaporization, given the same wattage or resistance present in the filament. It’s spikes thus as you drop the power into the filament will be highly different with the HPL lamp lingering longer in a brighter/more white output than with a normal halogen or incandescent lamp, though both at some point will have similar outputs at lower dimmer ratios. Thus, in at least my theory, a HPL/HX-600 lamp will have less problems with amber shift up to a point when those advantages will rapidly drop off.

(Osram - Technology and Application, Tungsten Halogen Low Voltage Lamps Photo Optics.) “The reduced rate of vaporization of the tungsten can either be used to increase lamp life or - if the life remains the same - to increase the luminous efficacy and the color temperature by raising the temperature of the tungsten. In both cases, using the standard krypton lamp as a starting point, the filament dimensions have to be recalculated and the lamp filling modified.
Luminous efficacy can be increased by about 5-10% with the “Xenon Effect”, which corresponds to a color temperature increase of about 100K. Xenophot technology can only be used for low-voltage lamps. In high-voltage lamps the lower ionizing energy of Xenon would lead to electrical discharge in the lamp bulb.”

That resistance in the filament is the wattage of the filament as modified by the voltage it is designed to operate at. The larger the voltage, the larger the filament needs to be to carry the current safely where life and cold starting is concerned amongst other factors. The larger the filament, the longer it’s going when dimmed to retain it’s heat and thus color temperature for the initial dimming up or down. In many cases, that’s coming close to the rate your eyes adjust for the drop in color temperature or output without you noticing it. The larger the filament, the less resistant the materials comparatively will be to the flow of electricity due to the mass of the wire radiating the same amount of heat. It’s still giving off the same amount of heat, just doing less work to do so and thus burning up less.

Another way of controlling resistance in the wire is by changing the percentage of tungsten to other materials in it. A long life lamp can have the same size of filament wire, but have longer lasting - more resistant to heat materials making it up that incandess a little less or even a higher percentage of halogen in the gas or be operating at a higher temperature allowing the halogen cycle to operate more effectively. Differences in how the bulb is designed or the gas flows within the lamp will also effect this. With any of these methods the long life lamp in general will have less output, but the same color temperature in most instances, but you can retain the same output and life by adjusting the color temperature the filament burns at. There are three primary factors life, output and color temperature to a lamp given it’s resistance and voltage by design are the same. Adjusting any of them is a question of fillers, coatings, voltage, filament composition and winding of that filament. A filament designed for a high color temperature, and high voltage such as 125v will when at a lesser voltage have a similar color temperature to a lamp designed for 115v operation but more life when operated under voltage given the same life rating at the start. The only thing that will drop is luminous output. On the other hand, when you operate a 120v lamp rated exactly the same as a 115v lamp at 115v, it’s going to have a longer rated life, but less color temperature and output. The 120v lamp will appear less bright in both color and intensity. The main difference between 130v and 120v incandescent lamps in a household fixture. The larger filament will also be more resistant to voltage spikes and cold starting in-rush currents effecting the filament by making it operate at a higher voltage and temperature if only for a few moments.

Since filaments have different compositions, in addition to the fillers, closeness of filament wires to each other having a thermal effect on them, and coatings on the lamps, they on a spectral graph will have differing spikes on the chart brand to brand and type to type. A long life lamp will have differing dimming characteristics than a high output lamp due to what’s burning inside of it and what spikes they have. Also if the lamp is say already a higher voltage lamp that’s operating on a lesser voltage, than it will tend to more rapidly be effected by amber shift than one that is operating at it’s peak output because it’s already not at it’s peak values and some parts of the range of light are already not there.

All of that said, when you operate a 115v lamp over it’s rated voltage, such as on a HPL lamp at 120 or more realistically 117v, than it’s going to have a higher color temperature than it’s rated and published color temperature. HPL/HX-600 lamps appear more blue than other lamps in older stage lighting fixtures in part due to fixture efficiency. The design color temperature is usually about the same as with 120v lamps, (the color temperature difference between a EHD lamp and a HPL lamp is 250°K and that’s not noticeable in theory,) but the voltage is boosting the color temperature to make it look different in a factor of 2% color for 5% in volts (making it seem as if the lamp had a 120v. 3,770°K color temperature instead of a 115v, 3,250°K color temperature, or 2,950°K color temperature of a EHD lamp) in addition to it’s differing spectral spikes from operating at a higher filament temperature, while sacrificing lamp life at operating over voltage. (That’s 50% less life when using a 115v HPL high output lamp on a 120v circuit or 150 hours without dimming. Don’t believe me, check the math, for every 1% of difference in supply voltage, life is effected by 12%. Large increase in color temperature not to mention actual output. Remember also that the actual amount of time such lamps are on is not much especially when dimmed down to voltages below 115v which go back to extending their life, plus line voltage after voltage drop is usually much less than the calculated 120v.)

HPL/HX-600 lamps operated over voltage and with their various improvements are kind of similar to car engines with a nitro boost. It’s the same basic engine though probably improved for the best output, but that nitro boost makes it go faster and burn out the engine faster as a secondary result. A HPL lamp appears brighter in color temperature and has more output much due to the voltage. A HPL 575w lamp operated over voltage, and with it’s improved dichroic coating and gas mixtures, puts out as much light (17,208.333 Lum/120v out of a 16,520 Lum lamp) as a average between a EHG and EHF 750w Quartz lamp. More than the EHG (usually 15,400 Lum) with it’s longer life, and less than a 750w EHF (Usually 20,400 Lum) with it’s similar life to that of a HPL lamp when at differing design voltages. Thus, a HPL 575w lamp, in a higher and more efficient fixture puts out about as much light as a 750w lamp, but in the higher efficiency fixture might even put out slightly more say 800w worth of halogen light because the light is collected and focused more efficiently. That 800w figure is also based upon how the light appears. Since as you raise the voltage that 4%, your color temperature also goes up, the light is going to appear more blue especially with better lenses on a ETC fixture in addition to differences in the lamp itself. A lamp operating at a higher color temperature seems to be brighter even if the same or less in actual lumens coming out of the fixture. It appears to be brighter and we perceive it to have more luminous output because of it. However actual output in many cases can be less such as on a multi-vapor lamp. It’s usually the case that a lamp having a larger color temperature will have less of a CRI rating. That’s the case even if the actual lamp has the same luminous output on paper. It’s a question of how natural that light looks in being useful verses just plain how bright it appears.

The maximum burning temperature of a average filament is about 3,550°K (3383°C) when operated at it’s rated voltage. There are some incandescent lamps out there that burn at about that color temperature without using any filters to boost it. However any time you put a filament at it’s maximum burning temperature, or the closer you get to it, the faster it will burn up or larger chance it will be adversely effected by variations in voltage applied to it. Normal maximum color temperature of stage and studio bulbs is between 2,800°K and 3,200°K which leaves somewhere around 20 Volts (my figure) of margin of error before the filament burns itself up too rapidly for it to be used. A better figure would be using a 10% maximum variation in over-Voltage. For a HPL lamp designed for a 115v lamp, you don’t want to operate it at over 126.5v for semi extended use or 131.43v (14%) for a voltage spike. Osram says in their below book, start up lamp filament resistance can be as much as 20 times less than operating resistance, and most lamps are designed for a start up voltage of 108%. With every 3 lumens per watt applied to the lamp, color temperature changes by 100K. That’s a base way of determining color temperature when not given. Remember this figure for special effects and low voltage lights.

(Osram - Tungsten Halogen Low Voltage Lamps Photo Optics p.21 as referenced from IES Lighting Handbook & The Science of Color as a refrence) “The following variables can be related in a fixed formula for incandescent lamps.
- Luminous flux
- Luminous efficacy
- Color temperature
- Electrical voltage
- Electrical current
- Electrical power consumption
In non-tungsten halogen lamps, lamp life can also be added to this list as it is only determined by the physically measurable evaporation rate of the tungsten filament. In tungsten-halogen lamps, lamp life is also affected by the chemistry of the tungsten halogen cycle. A fixed mathematical relationship with the above variables therefore only exists in a small, well-defined range.
The mutual dependence of these variables can be shown very clearly in a diagram id the deviation from the rated lamp voltage us used as the abscissa.
The following rule of thumb can be derived:
A 5% change in voltage applied to the lamp results in
- halving or doubling the lamp life
- a 15% change in luminous flux
- an 8% change in power
- a 3% change in current
- a 2% change in color temperature
The limitation described above applies to lamp life. It must also be noted that increasing the voltage may in some circumstances not be permissible, depending on the design of the lamp; if it causes the tungsten filament to reach its melting point the lamp will burn out.”

Review of this only small portion of the subject as I understand it: A long life lamp will last longer than a high output lamp in exchange for output or real light coming out of it, or exchange color temperature for life and it has to be one of the two if you don’t change the voltage or wattage given the same fillers.
The long life lamp should react just slightly different under a dimmer or over voltage than a high output lamp also due to the differing materials making it up as plotted on a spectral graph.

Such lamps as a HPL lamp are more efficient by design and fixtures they are used in than halogen lamps used in older fixtures, just as halogen fixtures were a vast improvement over incandescent sources.

Any filament lamp is limited in it’s maximum color temperature by the filament itself and what pressure or gasses surround it preventing it from evaporating or burning up too rapidly which is also effected by voltage applied to it in addition to other things such as frequency.

When you operate a lamp at too high a voltage, it gets really bright but goes super nova just as fast. Otherwise in the case of a HPL lamp, it has more color temperature and output but less life. A HPL 575w/115v lamp will look very different than a HPL 575w/120v lamp when operated at the same voltage no matter what it is. Those differences are enough to notice even though there is only a 4% change in voltage applied to it and that on a dimmer usually is not enough to notice in difference between the same lamps.

A lamp when dimmed is going to have amber shift effecting it and will provide light corresponding to the spikes on the output graph up to a point when special gasses, proximity to other parts of the filament or dichroic coatings stop effecting the output and it will than return to normal incandescent output. Those spikes on a dimmed lamp will make it linger in certain ranges of spectral color and appear different, making say a HPL lamp look different on a dimmer look different in color temperature than a lesser wattage lamp not dimmed. It is going to have amber shift and loose much of the usable light in it’s full range of colors, but it will linger at certain points differently.

A lamp with differing compositions of the filament, or what is “doped” into it’s make up will also have slightly differing spectral spikes as would a larger filament lamp when dimmed to a point that it is operating at the same temperature. Tin will have a different burning spike pattern than that of a copper doping given that’s what’s used.

A dimmed lamp in comparison to a lamp operating at it’s rated voltage but at a smaller wattage will have about the same luminous output at some point in dimming no matter what the color temperature, and both will be effected exactly the same by the law of squares or law of inverse squares which ever applies the further away from the fixture you get.

The color temperature and life of that dimmed lamp will be inversely effected by dimming to life but less so effected than Lumionous Output will be in going down as the lamp is dimmed. This is also effected by the types of chemicals, proximity of the filament wires to each other or thickness of the wire or other factors such as pressure, chemicals used and dichroic coatings as they relate to filament heat at voltage to the lack of benefits such things offer. At some point, a lamp given current is just heating the wire and not incandessing, at some point before that, no matter what chemical or pressure you are using to allow for a higher burning temperature of the filament, the lamp is acting as if a normal incandescent lamp in life and output in a broad sense even with spikes in spectral output considered.

When you have a need for a lower intensity on a source and don’t need to go above it, it is better to perhaps dim it very slightly to extend life, but always go for the lower wattage lamp that is operating at peak color temperature because the actual radiation of the lamp in the visable spectrum of light will be more full in all areas of light and operating at it’s design peak.
If you only need 10,500 Lumens out of a fixture, rather than dimming a 575w lamp to about 66%, you are better off putting a 375w lamp in the fixture, it’s giving design color temperature with all light present in it’s spectral graph.
Note: HPL lamps and FLK/HX-600 series lamps are for all intensive purposes the same lamp see the GLA series of lamp that used to be able to be used for either type of fixture. You can get a HX-400 lamp that’s going to be about the same as a HPL375, just as you can get a HX-754 or HX-800 lamp that’s going to be the same as a HPL 750. Just a question of what fixture it’s in and your need for output. All styles have long life variants. A Shakespeare and a ETC S-4 fixture use those different lamps but can be expected to have similar outputs coming out of them.

Notes: (Anything without a source following it probably comes from a GE catalog especially the GE-Spectrum Catalog.)
Cand. = Candlepower, Candlepower is the normal rating method of the total light output of miniature lamps. To convert this rating to lumens multiply it by 12.57 (4 pi).
Mean spherical candlepower MSCP is the initial mean candlepower at the design voltage. It is subject to manufacturing tolerances. Mean spherical candlepower is the generally accepted method of rating the total light output of miniature lamps.
cd = Candela. The international unit (SI) of luminous intensity. The term has been retained from the early days of lighting when a standard candle of a fixed size and composition was used as a basis for evaluating the intensity of other light sources.
Chromacity = See Color Temperature
Color Rendering = As a rule, artificial light should enable the human eye to perceive colors correctly, as it would in natural daylight. Obviously, this depends to some extent on the location and purpose for which light is required. The criterion here is the color rendering property of a light source. This is expressed as a “general color rendering index” (CRI). The color rendering index is a measure of the correspondence between the color of an object (its “selfluminous color”) and its appearance under a reference light source. To determine the CRI values, eight test colors defined in accordance with DIN 6169 are illuminated with the reference light source and the light source under test. The smaller the discrepance, the better the color rendering property of the lamp tested. A light source with a CRI value of 100 displays all colors exactly as they appear under the reference light source. The lower the CRI value, the poorer the colors are rendered. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Color Temperature = Originally, a term used to describe the “whiteness” of incandescent lamp light. Color temperature is directly related to the physical temperature of the filament in incandescent lamps so the Kelvin (absolute) temperature is used to describe color temperature. For discharge lamps where no hot filament is involved, the term “correlated color temperature” is used to indicate that the light appears “as if” the discharge lamp is operating at a giving color temperature. More recently, the term “chromaticity” has been used in place of color temperature. Chromacity is expressed either in Kelvins (K) or as “X” and “Y” coordinated on the CIE Standard Chrom-aticity Diagram. Although it may not seem sensible, a high color temperature (K) describes a visually cooler, bluer light source. Typical color temperatures are 2,800°K (incandescent), 3,000°K (halogen), 4,100°K (cool white or sp41 fluorescent), and 5,000°K (daylight-simulating fluorescent colors such as Chroma 50 and SPX 50.
Unit of measurement: Kelvin (K) the color temperature os a light source is defined in comparison with a “black body radiator” and plotted on what is known as the “Planckian curve.” The higher the temperature of this “black body radiator” the greater the blue component in the spectrum and the smaller the red component. An incandescent lamp with a warm white light, for example, has a color temperature of 2,700°K, whereas a daylight has a color temperature of 6,000°K. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Light color = The light color of a lamp can be neatly defined in terms of color temperature. There are three main categories here: warm<3,300°K, intermediate 3,300 to 5,000°K, and daylight > 5,000°K. Despite having the same light color, lamps may have very different color rendering properties owing to the spectral composition of the light. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Hal = Halogen Lamp - A short name for the tungsten-halogen lamp. Halogen lamps are high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gasses such as iodine or bromine which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. A high-temperature chemical reaction involving tungsten and the halogen gas recycles evaporated particles of tungsten back onto the filament surface. Also called a Quartz lamp, though this is a term for the higher melting temperature glass enclosure used on halogen lamp
HIR = Halogen - IR Lamp. Dichroic Lamp Coatings. G.E. designation for a new form of high-efficiency tungsten halogen lamp. HIR lamps utilize shaped filament tubes coated with numerous layers of materials which selectively reflect and transmit infrared energy and light. Reflecting the infrared back onto the filament reduces the power needed to keep the filament hot.
Illuminance = The “density” of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux. - GE Spectrum Catalog
Illuminance = The “density” of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux.
A unit of measurement: lux (lx) illuminance E is the ratio between the luminous flux and the area to be illuminated. An illuminance of 1 lx occurs when a luminous flux of 1lumen is evenly distributed over an area of one square meter. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Lamps with Blue Dichroic Reflectors: Lamps with Semi-Clear Blue Reflectors reflect less unwanted visible light above the 70nm range.
Lum. = Lumen - The international (SI) unit of luminous flux or quantity of light. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides 840 lumens. (Lumens = Mean Spherical Candlepower x 12.57)
Luminance L = A unit of measurement: candelas per square metre (cd/m²) The luminance L of a light source or an illuminated area is a measure of how great an impression of brightness is created in the brain. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Luminous efficacy ɳ = Unit of measurement: lumens per watt (lm/W). Luminous efficacy indicates the efficiency with which the electrical power consumed is converted into light. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Luminous Flux Ф = a unit of measurement: Lumen (lm). All the radiated power emitted by a light source and perceived by the eye is called luminous flux. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Luminous Intensity I = Unit of measurement: candela (cd). Generally speaking, a light source emits its luminous flux in different directions and a different intensities. The visible radiant intensity in a particular direction is called luminous intensity. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Lumen Maintenance = A measure of how a lamp maintains its light output over time. It may be expressed as a graph of light output verses time or numerically.
All metal halide lamps experience a reduction in light output and a very slight increase in power consumption through life. Consequently there is an economic life when the efficacy of the lamp falls to a level at which is better to replace the lamp and restore the illumination. Where a number of lamps are used within the same area it may be well worth considering a group lamp replacement programme to ensure uniform output from all the lamps.
Luminarie Efficiency = The ratio of total lumens emitted by a luminary to those emitted by the lamp or lamps used.
Luminarie efficiency (also known as light output ratio) is an important criterion in gauging the energy efficiency of a luminarie. This is the ratio between the luminous flux emitted by the luminarie and the luminous flux of the lamp (or lamps) installed in the luminarie. For detailed information on indoor lighting with artificial light, see DIN 5035. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Luminance = Formerly, a measure of photometric brightness. Luminance has a rather complicated mathematical definition involving the intensity and direction of light. It should be expressed in candelas per square inch or candelas per square meter although an older unit, the “footlambert”, is still sometimes used. Luminance is a measurable quantity whereas brightness is subjective sensation.
Luminous Efficacy = The light output of a high source divided by the total power input to that source. It is expressed in lumens per watt.
Lux (lx) = The SI (International) unit of illuminance. One lux is equal to 1 lumen per square meter. See also footcandle.
MSCP = Mean Spherical Candlepower, this value is the initial mean spherical candlepower at design voltage, subject to manufacturer tolerances, generally the accepted method of rating the total light output of miniature lamps. See Candle Power above.
Mean Lumens = The average light output of a lamp over its rated life. For fluorescent and metal halide lamps, mean lumen ratings are measured at 40% of rated lamp life. For mercury, high pressure sodium and incandescent lamps, mean lumen ratings are measured at 50% of rated lamp life.
Neodymium Coating, a Dichroic Coating on the lamp which reduces the yellow content of light, enhancing whites, reds, blues & Greens. These lamps are useful for merchandise displays, or on dimmed circuits to correct for amber shift.
Nitrogen = Common inert gas filling other than halogen for inside incandescent lamps, This is usually a mixture of nitrogen and argon used in lamps 40watts and over to retard evaporation of the filament. Smaller bulbs usually do not require gas and therefore are vacuum bulbs Krypton is limited in output and Nitrogen/Argon gasses
Tungsten = Tungsten filaments change electrical energy to radiant energy. The light generated results from the filament being resistance heated to a temperature high enough to produce visible light. Filaments can not be operated in air see seal and vacuum. Tungsten is used for the filaments because of its low rate of evaporation at temperatures of incandescence and its high melting point 3,655°K. There are grades of tungsten purity and different grain structures. Only the highest grade of an elongated grain structure guarantees maximum life and reliability during shock and vibration. Heat treatment of the tungsten filaments is one of the most critical factors in lamp manufacturing.. Proper heat treatment prevents filament sag, abnormal coil shorting or premature breakage.
Tungsten Halogen Lamps = Halogen Lamps are tungsten fliament incandescent lamps filled with an inert gas (usually krypton or xenon to insulate the filament and decrease heat losses) to which a trace of halogen vapor (bromine) has been added. Tungsten vaporized from the filament wire is intercepted by the halogen gas before it reaches the wall of the bulb, and is returned to the filament. Therefore, the glass bulb stays clean and the light output remains constant over the entire life of the lamp. (p33, Sylvania Lamp & Ballast Product Catalog 2002)
Halogen lamps are high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gasses such as iodine or bromine which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. A high-temperature chemical reaction involving tungsten and the halogen gas recycles evaporated particles of tungsten back onto the filament surface. Also called a Quartz lamp, though this is a term for the higher melting temperature glass enclosure used on halogen lamp
v = Volts - A measurement of the electromotive force in an electrical circuit or device expressed in volts. Voltage can be thought of as being analogous to the pressure in a waterline. The effect of voltage on a lamp will cause a significant change in lamp performance. For any particular lamp, light output varies by a factor of 3.6 times and life varies inversely by a factor of 12 times any percentage variation in supply. For every 1% change in supply voltage light output will rise by 3.6% and lamp life will be reduced by 12%. This applies to both DC and AC current. Most standard line voltage lamps are offered at 130v. Since most line voltage power is applied at 120volts, the result is a slight under voltaging of the filament. The effect of this is substantially enhanced lifehours, protection from voltage spikes and energy cost savings.
Voltage and Light Output: The effect of voltage on the light output of a lamp is ±1% voltage over the rated amount stamped on the lamp, gives 3.1/2% more light or Lumens output but decreases the life by 73% and vise a versa.
Do not operate quartz Projection lamps at over 110% of their design voltage as rupture might occur. GE Projection, Ibid p.13
Xenon (High output halogen lamps using Xenon filler instead of krypton producing a luminous flux up to 10% higher; with otherwise identical lamp data

Quartz Lamp “QI”, or Quartz-Iodine Lamp. Introduced in 1959, this small, compact, long-life lamp consisted of a tungsten filament enclosed in a transparent quartz envelope partially filled with vaporized iodine. When an ordinary lamp burns, tiny particles of tungsten are released from the filament and are deposited on the glass envelope as a black film, gradually reducing the intensity of the light. During the burning process of the quartz-iodine lamp, released particles of tungsten reacted chemically with vaporized iodine and returned to the filament. Not only was the life of the lamp improved by this, but the black deposits on the inside of the envelope were eliminated. The ideal lamp had been created except for one small detail: as iodine sublimes, it turns a purple-violet color in both the warming (dim-up) and cooling cycles. Clearly, the untenable situation for theater lighting. Further experiments substituted a related element, halogen, for iodine and heat resistant quartz glass for the quartz envelope, producing a lamp that retained the favorable characteristics of the quartz-iodine lamp and eliminated the purple discoloration. The new lamp was redesigned and introduced to the market as a tungsten-halogen (TH) lamp. The term “Quartz” carried over.
Tungsten Halogen (TH, quartz iodine, QI). A lamp using a halogen gas around a compact filament. Used in instruments designed specifically for this type of lamp, the TH lamp can also be retrofitted for older instruments. It should be noted that the terms “QI”, “Quartz”, and “quartz iodine” are “misnomers” in common usage. (Theatre Lighting from A to Z by Norman C Boulanger and
Warren C Lounsbury, University of Washington Press, Seattle 1992) The Halogen lamp was invented by G.E. Lighting in 1957. (G.E Spectrum, Ibid p.2-1)
Tungsten-Halogen Lamp (TH, quartz, QI). The tungsten-halogen lamp is made with a heat-resistant synthetic quartz envelope, filled with halogen gas. Under the intense heat of the burning process, bits of tungsten released from the filament react chemically with the halogen to return to the filament. The process not only improves the life of the lamp but eliminates black deposits on the inside of the envelope that with standard tungsten lamps filled with inert gases. Another favorable feature of TH lamps is that they burn equally well in any position and therefore have made possible improvements in the design of instruments, including the axial mount ellipsoidal reflector spot light such as the Altman 360 being made into the 360Q. Because TH lamps offer higher intensity, longer life, and soot-free envelopes, they are obviously the favored lamps for stage-lighting instruments. Warning however, do not touch the synthetic quartz envelope of the lamp with bare fingers; skin oil deposited on the envelope will cause hot spots to develop when the light is turned on, shortening the life of the lamp. (Theatre Lighting from A to Z) Normal lamp globe temperature is 482°F minimum, hot spots on the bulb wall itself can go as high as 1,230°F. in normal operation. Use the paper or plastic wrap which comes with the lamp to shield it while handling. Clean dirty or touched lamps only with alcohol or grease free solvent. Keep sealed fixture temperatures below 350°C. Bulbs on the other hand must maintain (482°F) 250°C for operation of the halogen cycle.. To avoid shock when on, do not operate them beyond 8-10% of their total rated voltage (by the safety specs), 3,400K Quartz lamps should not be operated above 105% of their voltage or life will be seriously effected, under voltage operation under 90% of their rated voltage gives longer but un-predictable length extended life, however transformer type dimmers adjusting the voltage of a quartz lamp will preserve more lamp life than semi-conductor dimmers due to the type of dimming work actually done. (G.E, Ibid p58) Quartz lamps may begin to devitrify at temperatures above 1,832°F. The best operating range for a halogen lamp is 482-1,472°F. Oxidation on the sealing foil carrying current from the base to the filament however begins to oxidize at temperatures above 662°F. Lamp life may be shortened by premature seal failure if this temperature is exceeded. (G.E. 99, Ibid p.6-5) Contact pins are plated to ensure good electrical connection with the lampholder. However, at temperatures above 662°F. the plating may loose adhesion, leading to deterioration in contact and possibly local hot spots, arcing and consequent irreparable damage to both lamp and holder. Note that if there is evidence that this has occurred, the lampholder should be replaced before the next lamp is fitted, otherwise it is likely to fail prematurely for the same reason. Lamps normally fail by fusing of the filament. This is often followed by arcing, leading to very high currents which can cause the envelope and seals to fail and the lamp to shatter. A quick-acting, high breaking capacity fuse should therefore be connected to the supply line in all applications suitable types are given is IEC 127, 241, and 269. Because of the heat involved with line voltage halogen lamps, do not use them in fixtures not rated for their use, or at least 660V constant operation high temperature plastic or porcelain, or in fixtures with cooling fins on their base, reflectors or anything else needed for extra cooling of the equipment. (G.E Spectrum, Ibid p.2-17) Normal operating temperatures of a halogen lamp are above the flash point and kindling temperatures of many materials and lamp bases, care should be taken when using them. Temperatures above 350°C should be avoided when using a halogen lamp as they might deteriorate the lead wires and basing cement can loosen causing lamp failure. (GE Miniature & Sealed Beam Lamp Catalog, G.E. Lighting # 208-21121 (9/92) p. 23)
Halogen lamps operate at near 100% efficiency throughout their life, and generates 1/3 more light per watt than conventional incandescent lamps (Philips, Ibid p.111) 68% more energy cost savings over Incandescent and 50% more life. (G.E. 99, Ibid p. I-5) Substantial heat is generated in all halogen lamps (90% of their light is infrared and a small amount is UV which can be protected against by almost any screen or lens) (G.E Spectrum, Ibid p.17), so equipment design should make allowance for the dissipation of excessive heat. Certain lamps and extremely confined fixtures may require additional ventilation or heat sinking to ensure proper operation of the halogen cycle and to prevent damage to the fixture. It is a good practice to test the lamp in the operating environment early in the design cycle to ensure adequate performance. Precautions must be taken in the selection of materials for lamp holders, reflectors, and lamp housings because the 1230°F. bulb wall temperature is greater than the kindling temperature of many materials. Lamp base temperatures should not exceed 662°F. because above that point, lead wires may deteriorate and the basing cement loosen, causing premature lamp failure (G.E.99, Ibid p.2-15)
Avoid lamp use on dimmers which can deliver voltage over their rated voltage, do not allow one lamp to directly touch another lamp, and do not allow particles to fall on the lamp they can cause hot spots on the lamp. (Ushio, Ibid p.28) Extended exposure to un-jacketed lamps rated at 3,200K and above, or to any un-jacketed quartz lamps operated above rated voltage, may lead to ultraviolet irritation of skin and eyes. Passing the light through ordinary glass or plastic provides adequate protection. Such protection is automatically provided by the glass of outer bulbs of quartz Par and R-lamps. (G.E, Ibid p.54) Noise - all Quartz stage and studio type lamps except Par types have special “low noize” construction to minimize generation of audible noise when operatid on A.C. circuits. In addition all Quartz RSC lamps have such construction. (G.E, Ibid p.57) The most powerful Quartz lamp is 20,000 KW.
Halogen Lamps: to clean touched lamps use alcohol and a clean cloth if touched or dirty, better yet do not touch a halogen lamp as the oils from ones fingers will stay on the glass and cause heat to not dissipate as well. Sometimes these areas can burst or swell up in time. They can also reflect heat and cause the filament to become misshaped even to the point of it touching the opposite side of the lamp and melting its way thru the glass. In this case, even if the filament does not break, the focus point of light will be out of focus. Also always allow a lamp or fuse to cool before touching it even with gloved hands, as the glass might explode.
ANSI lamps and generalized data do not necessarily mean every lamp brand producing the same lamp will have the exact performance data. Materials which make up the lamp play a large part in the lumen output and life of a lamp. Factors affecting this are: the grade of quartz (it purity its preparation and transparency) (Ushio, All Lamps Are Not Created Equal, Ushio Pamphlet), the cement and ceramic materials strength and durability, the gas selection - mixture and fill pressure. (The choice of gas is critical as well as its pressures and organic carriers: see chart below.) The tungsten filament ([K2O-SiO2-Al2O3 family] having a low rate of evaporation at high temperatures, and is easily formed into complex shapes necessary for the filament. Different treatments during the production of the tungsten wire affect the filament’s properties. For example, the introduction of re-crystallized particles along the length of the wire makes it possible to produce filaments which remain distortion free. Such non-sagging filaments are critical in many applications.) ( Ushio All Lamps, Ibid) The filament must be formed and coiled to the right specifications, and assembly must be done in a clean environment. (the sealing must withstand an increase in temperature from ambient to 250°C. and still keep its seal. Forming the seal is critical to making a good lamp, molybenum foil is used since it expands at almost the same rate as quartz when it is heated. Since the rates do not match perfectly, the stress on the seal area must still be minimized by chemically milling the edges of the foil of the thinnest feasible cross-section, it is possible to improve the seal performance further. Such proprietary techniques differ from one lamp maker to another and serve as examples of the differences in manufacturing technique which impact on lamp performance and consistency.) (Ushio All Lamps, Ibid) Any scaling down of these features will probably be reflected in the price and quality of a lamp. (Ushio Lamp Promotion, Special Promotional Pricing for Distributors, Ushio#P004/0500 c5/1/2000 p.5) There are more than twenty companies which manufacture lamps today. There are also a number of companies selling lamps that are private labeled for them. The manufacturers are generally divided into two groups: companies products primarily for general lighting and those producing lamps for special applications. The requirements for success are different. Products for general lighting are typically manufactured in high volumes. Being able to design, build and operate high speed production lines is critical. Specialty product manufacturers usually concentrate on producing small quantities often with more specific design goals and tighter tolerances. Their challenge is to maintain consistency since unexpected lamp failures can result in down time costing many thousands of dollars per hour. (Ushio All Lamps, Ibid)

Most typically today, bromine or iodine are used as the active halogen components. Nitrogen, argon and sometimes krypton gases from the atmosphere. The choice considers thermal losses, arcing voltage, molecular mass and cost among other factors. ( Ushio All lamps, Ibid)

Heat Impact Resistance - The quartz glass envelope signifies that halogen lamps are much more resistant to heat impact than ordinary incandescent lamps. There is almost no danger that a lit halogen lamp will break even if it should come into contact with cold water. Halogen Cycle - When the filament is heated to a high degree, the tungsten evaporates and reacts chemically with tie iodine gas (halogen gas) inside the bulb to produce tungsten iodide near the bulb wall. The tungsten iodide particles are moved by convection within the bulb and, when they approach the highly heated filament, they are decomposed once again into iodine and tungsten. The tungsten returns to the filament once more and the same cycle is then repeated. The process, called “Halogen Cycle,” effectively prevents blackening of the bulb wall and thinning of the filament’s tungsten, thus resulting in longer lamp life. (Ushio Halogen Lamps, Ushio Pamphlet #94-3-1000 YO(24) Japan pp.1-2)

Interference Filters: These filters are sometimes called “Dichroic”and provide selective transmission of radiant energy. They are generally used to transmit light and reflect the invisible radiation. (1) Infra-red in the beam is minimized (up to 85% reduction) with no significant loss of light. Re-directed radiant energy is deflected to a heat Absorbing collecting surface which must be cooled by more conventional air or water techniques.
Note (1): Interference filters are also available as “cold mirrors” to reflect light and transmit infrared. These are useful for reflecting contours. “Dichroic Beam Splitters” act down range of the lamp, and act as a lens transmitting light while reflecting radiant heat.
Transmission: Light Approx 92%, IR Approx 15%
Heat Absorbing Glass: These materials tend to absorb some energy in the visible spectrum as well as infra-red. However, some types are relatively effective—absorbing as much as 80% of the infra-red while transmitting approximately 75% of the light. Because heat is principally absorbed (rather than reflected) a temperature rise occurs n the glass it-self. This surface tends to become a radiant heating panel unless effective air circulation is provided to minimize the build-up of heat.
Transmission: Light Approx 75%, IR Approx 20%
Water Filters: Many liquids will absorb large portions of the infra-red energy while transmitting most of the visible wavelengths. A one-inch thickness of water, for example, will absorb approximately two-thirds of the invisible energy. While such a circulating water system is not a normal procedure, it may be useful in limited situations, particularly in conjunction with other water-cooled panels.
Transmission: Light Approx: 85% I.R. Approx 30%

Incandescent Lamps: The efficiency and operation of a filament lamp is relatively unaffected by temperature. However, the effect of heat on lamp and fixture materials may be a critical design consideration. (Also see “Lamp Heat Emission”)
Ambient Temperature: The filament itself operates at a very high temperature (E.G. 4,000-5,000°F.), so any normal change in air surrounding a bulb is relatively insignificant and will not affect filament temperature. Since filament temperature is neither increased nor decreased, there is no adverse effect on lamp life or light output.
Bulb Temperature: If a region on the bulb is heated to the softening point of glass, a blister or bubble will develop due to the pressure of the gas inside. Most general-purpose lamps produce maximum bulb temperatures below 500°F (and often below 300°.) With higher wattage lamps and with compact special-purpose sources, however, the glass temperatures may be a design consideration.
Maximum Safe Operating Temperature for Bulb Glass: (Approximate)
Soft, Lime Glass 700°F.
Hard, Heat-Resistant Glass 855°F.
Molded, Heat-Resistant Glass 975°F.
Quartz Tubing 3,000°F.
Bulb Position: Because Convection Heat Rises, location of the “Hot Spot” will vary with the bulb position. Some lamp types are limited to certain burning positions to insure that glass temperature limits are not exceeded.
Base Up lamps have convection of heat flowing upwards from the filament along the lead-in and support wires (at the center) to the base of the lamp. From there, it is turned around (in a high pressure exchange due to the amount of heat convection verses the size of the stem,) and flows along the outside of the bulb until it hits the top of the envelope which is in a down position, than back into the filament to be re-circulated. How the filament is supported, especially on C type single filament lamps is also a major factor in burning position, horizontal/base up or down. are all factored into the design and layout of the hangers/supports, and how tight they keep the filament or how much sag/stretch and eventual breakage is countered by the supports fixed in a ceratin position.
Internal Convection: Base Down lamps flow in the opposite direction (filament to top of envelope, around the bulb to the stem/base, than back up the center to the filament.) except not all of the circulating air reaches the base of the lamp. The lamp base on these lamps is slightly cooler than on base up lamps because less convection heat is directed or forced into the smaller turbulent area of the lamp base. The heated air/gas flowing in this area (having already circulated over ½ way around the bulb does not have the pressure to force its way into the turbulence of the lamp base/stem, thus leaving the base cooler because it does not contact as much heat. The overall globe temperature and amplitude of heat circulating is more however through the filament because of the shorter path of circulation of the heat. These differences in circulation of heat within the lamp are important factors when things like porcelain verses plastic lamp bases are in question (See “Chimney Effect” Below,) or in the composition of the materials making the lamp and its efficiency verses wattage are involved.
Reflector Focus of Energy: When circular or spherical reflectors are used to re-focus light, the physical position of vulnerable lamp parts becomes a design consideration — to prevent a focus of radiant energy on the bulb filament. Such concentrations of heat, whether caused by faulty design or maladjustment of the unit, can cause glass failure.
Exposure to Water: Gas-Filled lamps must be protected from localized cooling (thermal shock) due to rain, snow, or even large bugs. This causes bulb breakage. Glass cover plate (or screens) are used for protection (given proper ventilation or high temperature lamps to counteract the increased heat)
or hard glass bulbs may be used.
Contact with Metal: Thermal cracks may result from metal fixture parts touching the bulb. Localized cooling causes internal stress and can cause glass failure. Note

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##### Senior Team Emeritus
gee, the notes were cut off.

if the lamp is rated higher than the reflector or fixture, lamps which are out of focal adjustment and too close in proximity to the fixture, can also cause burning, rusting, or other fatigue on the fixture in addition to the lamp - especially with adjustable focus bases on quartz fixtures.
Lamp Base Deterioration: Lamp base temperatures are a basic consideration in fixture design. While most fixtures are properly designed to dissipate the heat, excessive temperature can be caused by over-voltage operation or by the use of lamps of higher wattage than recommended. This can adversely affect the bulb seal and cause failure. In extreme cases, heat can also damage the socket and adjacent wiring.
Maximum Safe Operating Temp. for Bulb Bases: (Approximate)
Regular Basing Cement 345°F.
High Temperature Basing Cement 500-600°F.
Mechanical Base 450°F.
Ventilated Fixtures: Vent Slots must be located below the lamp base to minimize the “Chimney Effect” of hot air rising past the base itself. Heat baffles are also useful for controlling convection currents — to reduce pockets of hot air near vulnerable parts of the assembly such as the areas where color is used, where the ballast is, where the fixture comes into contact with wood framing materials, where the fixture might be adjusted or handled by operators or service personal or for the purposes of heating and cooling in a space.
Housing Materials: Thermo-plastics (I.E. Acrylic, Styrene, Vinyl) are generally acceptable as components in fluorescent fixtures or systems, but their low resistance to heat makes them unsatisfactory for murcury and incandescent units. With these sources, metal, glass, or thermo-setting plastics (I.E. Polyester) are required.
Lamp Heat: a 300 watt halogen lamp burns at 1,000 degrees, (Home Depot 1999 Calender Sept. 28.) The temperature of a 1,000 watt Par can is 180 degrees, a Source Four heats up to 240 degrees. (Upstaging co. 1999 shop temperature test)
Fixture Efficiency: (Lighting Dimensions, April/May 1983 “....World” p.?) (c.1983) “Unlike the late 1970s, few wholly new systems are being built today. Therefore for most shops any “third generation” solution is going to have to be so spectacularly good or spectacularly cheap that it’s worth replacing existing equipment to get.”
(Four years later, ETC and Altman came out with their new fixtures and opened the floodgates.)
“Improving fixture efficiency means increasing the amount of light a fixture of a given size and wattage produces or decreasing the size of the fixture required to produce a given amount of light. Miniaturizing fixtures isn’t a new idea; theatrical designers have asked for decades why a smaller leko can’t be built so more fixtures can be crammed into positions with limited capacity. (See the MR-16 Par Can) The biggest problem (given a compact enough light source) has always been heat. Most of the electrical energy pumped into a tungsten-halogen bulb is wasted as heat and the size of the fixture cannot be reduced beyond the point at which its internal temperature climbs beyond the limits of the materials in the fixture or bulb. (eg. the FEL and TP22)
One fix, of course, is to reduce temperatures by increasing the rate at which heat is transferred to the outside world. Performance lighting is not a stranger to the technique. Fifty years ago some carbon-arsenic projectors were circulating water through their condenser lenses to protect delicate slides from heat. Today there are a variety of materials, components and techniques for heat control (many spin-offs of military electronics packaging and the space program.) A miniaturized fixture built with them would have the advantage of small size, comparable operating cost and allow the use of current dimmer equipment. The question is whether anyone particularly outside the tour market, is willing to pay the premium prices required for a fixture that is “only” smaller than its predecessor - or even the investment of the funds it would take to figure out just how much more it would cost.
Another method of increasing efficiency is to use some new-fangled light source that produces more light (and less heat ) from the same amount of power: a high lumen to watt efficiency.
(See HPL, HX600, MSR and MR-16 technology as compared to standard quartz lamps.)
There are many other light sources with far higher lumen/watt efficiency than the quartz-halogen bulb. But if efficiency were the only important criteria, we would have fluorescent tubes in our fixtures. In fact light sources for performance lighting have to satisfy some very demanding criteria and no commercially available source yet satisfies them all at a total cost comparable to the tungsten-halogen.
Sources for fixtures with controlled beamspreads require a luminous area small enough for a reflector of reasonable size to collect. They require a relatively continuous spectral output if we are to filter out a wide range of color using current techniques. And they require a close color and intensity match from lamp to lamp across the life of the lamp despite aging, input power variation, and operating temperature swings. Measured against these criteria, the field narrows before you factor in three more problems: 1) Operating cost. At rated life, a PAR64 has a life cycle cost of about \$0.10 (1983) per hour. The sources touted as its replacement have much higher operating costs - and higher fixture costs. 2) Suitable Higher Efficiency (discharge sources need high-voltage ignitors the start) and some form of power conditioner which varies from type to type to run. Therefore the system user gets a choice between a simple magnetic ballast relatively cheap but heavy and large) and an electronic ballast which generally trades weight for cost and complexity. 3) Discharge sources are not electronically “dimmable” in the sense that we use it, instead it is much like a follow spot, it can be dimmed only by mechanical gating means such as the shutter/iris dimming technique.

The ceramic arc tube resists this material loss, can be manufactured to tighter tolerances and withstans a higher temperature to provide a more constant colour.
Filament lamps also have a major advantage over diode or cathode type fixtures, in that they are flicker free, instead of a using a pulsed arc of light to illuminate surfaces, incandescent types gain light by resistance to the filament which shows less variation from pulses in current than the arcs of light in other fixtures. This creates a more natural mood (GE Halogen Performance Plus Bulbs, G.E. Lighting #202-81341 p.2) Ceramic burner tubes will reduce the flicker

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##### Senior Team Emeritus
In reply to someone from this forum off line, I took a look at his very general lighting inventory and suggested some lamps for his application might be more efficient, higher in output or life or lower in wattage to prevent voltage drop if the fixtures are not going to be used at full. This especially with notation of what brands make the best lamp of the type as listed by each companies specification for the lamp they make. Thought it and at least part of my lamp fixture combination list might be of interest to others so here it is:

1.) We have some 6x9, 6x12, and 2 6x16 ellipsoidals. I believe they are Altman, but I can't tell you that for sure. Most of them are inline and we are using 500, 750, and 1000 watt elements in them....they are not part of the new series of 575's I know that for sure. We have a few 6x9 that are "offset" with a different size lamp. We use 500 and 750's in these as well. (the lamps are the type as described below in the Fresnel section) I can try to take a look and get exact details for you if you need them.

2.) We have a number of old old old 6, 8, & 12 fresnels. I believe these are altman units as well, either that or they have the Altman conversions in them. The are the type that have what I have been told is the conversion unit in them, whereas the lamp base is round and to install you push in and turn 1/4 turn.

3.) We have some large scoops and some Altman 2 X 1000 watt cyc lights.

1) in-line Lekos are called Axial. That’s the more modern generation of them that were designed around the more efficient and smaller halogen lamp. They are good stock fixtures. Something that is of note about them is that there are green and clear/blue lenses. If your lenses are green, reflectors and lenses are dirty, they will not give a nice light of the proper color temperature. Dust/dirt gives a kind of amber tint and blocks reflection. Green lenses act as if gel in blocking some of the light in the white/blue spectrum. First things to check. If the old “radial” mounted type, there is not a upgraded lamp for them but using differing wattage lamps to match up with design will help. It’s a less efficient reflector system so the light coming out of them will frequently be dim in comparison. Use such fixtures as secondary lights of importance or wash for scenes such as night where a crisp white light is not necessary. While it is possible to give you lamp types for such fixtures, you would have to tell me what the radial fixtures currently have in them. There have been many stiles of radial fixture over the years and while most are medium pre-focus, others are not.

Fixture/lamp combinations available for maxing out the fixture:
Brands listed conform to the maximum specifications given here and are companies that still make the lamp at the last time the data was published. Other brands making the same lamp might be available but do not conform to the maximum lamp output specifications listed below in one or more ways. This means in the case of a EHD lamp, even though Ushio, GE/Thorn, and Wiko also make the lamp, they are not as bright by what’s listed in their specifications. Of note is that color temperature and lumens go up when lamp life goes down. Also a high color temperature lamp will appear much brighter than a average color temperature but high luminous output lamp because of it’s blue/white instead of white/amber light. The lower than 120v lamps will also have higher color temperatures and luminous outputs than listed, but lower life. This is dependant upon actual voltage at the source. If with voltage drop, dimmer chokes etc, you have 117v, your 120v lamp will suffer from amber shift even if at full output and not put out as much light. The 115v lamp will be operating over voltage still and not only put out it’s specified output, but put out a percentage more of it. That above wattage is why a FLK lamp puts out about 800w of actual light, but appears as bright as a FEL in output. The lower voltage high color temperature lamp will also retain it’s higher color temperature longer than a line voltage lamp.
In choosing a lamp below, it is first a question of wattage, than cost effectiveness weighed against output and life. Some of the more rare lamps will cost more than ones of a little less output and might not be worth the extra investment. Others will offer slightly less output, but provide 5 to 6 times the amount of life as a high output lamp. For general theater lighting, these extended life lamps should be the best option if you budget cannot afford constant lamp replacements say one lamp per year per every 1/3 fixture. On things like specials, patterns and perhaps key lights, use of the high output lamps could be more cost effective with the more limited as opposed to wash use, and it’s need for a higher punch. Lower voltage lamps given voltage drop will give a boosted output and color temperature. Given actual line voltage, most of the time they are the best lamp in balancing wattage to output to cost. They are recommended. Also if one 575w GLA will put out almost as much light as a 750w EHG lamp, and you can have four per 2.4Kw dimmer as opposed to three, that’s a better use of fixtures and dimmers. For the most part, a hundred degrees one way or another in color temperature, up to 1,500 Lumens, and 500 hours in life is not enough of a difference given the volume from a lamp to notice with the eye. So in spite of my posting only those brands with the maximum output and life per specification, in the case of the above EHD lamp, if the other brands making it are cheaper - especially in the case of Wiko, than it might be more cost effective overall. Granted the Wiko lamp in not being a “name brand” in having a long tradition of quality control, might fail sooner or not live up to it’s rated specification.

Altman 360 series (radial Leko) P-28s/medium pre-focus lamp base, LCL of 3.1/2" it is similar to a Fresnel lamp, but longer in length.
500w
DEB = 500w/120v incandescent, 2,850°K/9,000 Lumens/800hr (very dim and amber) GE, Ushio & Wiko
DNS/FMC = 500w/120v incandescent, 3,050°K/11,000L/500hr (a little brighter but still amber) Osram & Ushio
EGC = 500w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/13,000L/300hr (this is max output) Wiko - other brands make it but not as powerful
EGE = 500w/120v halogen, 3,000°K/10,450L/2,000hr (this is the normal lamp) Ushio & Osram
750w
DMT/FMD = 750w/120v incandescent, 3,050°K/17,000L/500hr (med. Brightness) Osram & Ushio
EGF = 750w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/20,400L/500hr (max output) GE & Ushio
EGG = 750w/120v halogen, 3,000°K/15,750L/2,000hr (this is the normal lamp) Ushio
1Kw (There are other lamps available in a 1Kw lamp, but I do not advise them without fresh wiring in the radial fixtures.)

Altman 360Q series (axial Leko) G9.5/Medium 2-pin/Bi-pin, LCL of 60.3mm/2.3/8"
400w
HX-400 = 400w/115v halogen, 3,200°K/10,000L/300hr (Max output for the wattage & lower voltage gives boost to output and color temp.) GE, Thorn & Ushio
HX-401 = 400w/115v halogen, 3,050°K/8,500L/1,500hr (Long life variant) GE, Thorn & Ushio
500w
#64711 = 500w/115v halogen, 3,200°K/15,500L/300hr (this lamp if still available, given it’s voltage will be the maximum output lamp available at 500w) Osram
EHC/EHB = 500w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/13,000L/300hr (Average high output) Osram & Wiko
EHD = 500w/120v halogen, 3,000°K/10,600L/2,000hr (this is the normal lamp) Philips & Osram
575w
#6989P = 575w/100v halogen, 3,200°K/15,500L/400hr (this lamp if still available, given it’s voltage will be the maximum output lamp available at 575w/five amps, and incredibly bright in color temperature but short in life.) Philips
GLC/HP600 = 575w/115v halogen, 3,250°K/15,500L/300hr (this is the second hottest lamp available in it’s wattage, but does not have as much real light as a FLK) Osram
FLK/HX-600 = 575w/115v halogen, 3,200°K/16,500L/300hr (this is the normal high output Leko lamp for stage) GE, Osram, Philips, Ushio, Wiko
GLA = 575w/115v halogen, 3,100°K/13,500L/1,500hr (this is the best and most cost effective or efficient lamp available for stage use) Philips
HPR 575/115 = 575w/115v halogen w.Reflector, 3,200°K/16,500L/300hr (this is the most efficient lamp available due to it’s internal reflector. You can see it’s beam of light within that of a FLK and it has no dim areas in it’s wash) Osram
750w
#6981P/6982P = 750w/115v halogen, 3,200°K/20,500L/400hr (this given it’s voltage is the highest output 750w lamp) Philips
GLE/HX-755 = 750w/115v halogen, 3,050°K/17,400L/1,500hr (this lamp is the long life version of the GLD/HX-754 and would be the max output 750w long life lamp) GE & Thorn
EHG/100v = 750w/100v halogen, 3,000°K/15,400L/2,000hr (this lamp given it’s voltage might have the highest color temperature of any 750w lamp available) Ushio
BWM = 750w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/21,000L/200hr (max output lamp at 120v) GE, Ushio & Wiko
EHF = 750w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/20,400L/500hr (this is the more normal high output variant for max 120v output.) GE
EHG = 750w/120v halogen, 3,000°K/15,400L/2,000hr (this is the normal long life 750w lamp) GE, Osram, Ushio & Wiko
800w
HX-800 = 800w/115v halogen, 3,200°K/22,000L/300hr (this lamp if still available, and if actually at 800w, is the most output 750w grade lamp available - 3 Leko/dimmer) Ushio
HX-801 = 800w/115v halogen, 3,050°K/18,000L/1,500hr (this lamp as with the 800 is also the most powerful long life 750w series lamp available, given it’s still made) Ushio
1Kw
BWN = 1Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/28,000L/250hr (this is the most powerful 1Kw lamp on the market. It is not rated for Lekos and might burn them up internally. But it has a lot of output.) GE/Thorn, Ushio, & Wiko
FEL = 1Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/27,500L/350hr (this is the normal 1Kw lamp for that is also not rated for a 360Q series of Leko. It’s filament is huge and inefficient in such fixtures but throws out a lot of light.) GE & Ushio
FEL-R = 1Kw/120v halogen w. Reflector, 3,200°K/27,500L/300hr (this is an improved FEL lamp with internal reflector. Given the extra 15 to 20% boost in efficiency of the HPR lamp, this lamp would be a very good option and will probably be more powerful than a BWN lamp, and with slightly longer life than it.) Osram
#54590 = 1Kw/120v halogen, 2,950°K/25,000L/2,000hr (this is the only long life 1Kw lamp on the market. It’s output is still more than any high output lower wattage lamp. It is listed as a heat lamp however which might infer that it’s going to be high in heat and UV output.) Osram
1.2Kw
JCV 120v-1200wCH = 1.2Kw/120v halogen, 3,250°K/33,000L/200hr (This is the largest lamp that will fit in such a fixture and will definitely burn it up.) Ushio

Altman #65 & 65Q, 6" Fresnel (most all Fresnels in this size take the same lamp and are the same in efficiency no matter how old.) P-28s/Medium Pre-Focus, LCL 2.3/16"/55.6mm

125w
125T10P = 125w/120v incandescent, 1,820L/500hr (if still available, this lamp is the lowest wattage lamp that should fit in a Fresnel) GE
150w
CTL = 150w/115v incandescent, 3,000°K/2,600L/500hr (this lamp also if still available would suffice, and above that of the 125w lamp, have a decent color temperature given it’s voltage) GE
200w
CVX/CVS = 200w/120v incandescent blackened tip, 3,100°K/4,400L/25hr (very short life on this lamp, the blackened tip should have not cause a reduction in output in this fixture) Ushio
CVX/CVS = 200w/115v incandescent blackened tip, 3,025°K/4,250L/50hr (better in life, and lower voltage, if still available. Wiko still should make a 120v version similar to it.) GE
250w
250T20/47 = 250w/120v incandescent, 2,900°K/4,600L/200hr (if still available and it’s doubtful) GE
300w
CXK = 300w/120v incandescent blackened tip, 3,200°K/7,500L/25hr (remember that with such low wattage lamps, that in spite of it’s limited life, that if you only need 20% out of a Fresnel normally lamped with a 500w lamp, this 300w lamp will give you the full color temperature with approximately the same luminous output.) Ushio & Wiko
500w
BTM = 500w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/13,000L/150hr (this is the max. output 500w lamp available) GE
BTL = 500w/120v halogen, 3,050°K/11,000L/750hr (this is the normal Fresnel lamp) Osram
750w
BTP = 750w/120v halogen, 3,200°K/21,000L/200hr (this is the most powerful 750w Fresnel lamp) GE & Philips
BTN = 750w/120v halogen, 3,050°K/17,600L/500hr (this is the normal 750w lamp. Given it’s life but comparative lower output, this is less effective than a BTP) GE & Philips
1Kw (these lamps are not rated for a 6" Fresnel, but are rated for a Beam Projector and possibly older types of more heavy duty stage fresnel)
DRB = 1Kw/115v incandescent, 3,350°K/32,000L/25hr (this is one of the most powerful 1Kw lamps on the market, especially considering it’s voltage and that it’s incandescent) GE
BTR = 1Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/28,500L/250hr (this is the normal 1K lamp of it’s type) GE, Philips, & Ushio
1.2Kw (there are lamps in this wattage available but they are not rated for the above fixture)

Altman #75 & 75Q, 8" Fresnel (most fixtures of this size will take the same lamp, but with more exceptions for brand and rated wattage of up to 2Kw. The Altman fixture is rated for 1Kw.)
1Kw
BVT = 1Kw/120v halogen, 3,050°K/24,500L/500hr (this would be the long life version) GE
BVV = 1Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/28,500L/200hr (this would be the high output version) GE & Wiko
1.5Kw
CWZ = 1.5Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/38,500L/325hr (this is the only 1.5Kw lamp for the fixture with the proper LCL for the fixture. GE possibly makes a more powerful CWZ but it is no longer listed) Osram, Ushio, Wiko
2Kw
BVW = 2Kw/120v halogen, 3,200°K/59,000L/300hr (this like with the CWZ is the only 2Kw lamp listed at the same LCL. Other lamps available for these fixtures are ½" shorter and would require a spacer block under the lamp base) GE

10 & 12" Fresnel (Altman does not make this fixture, and there is a wide variation as to the ratings and lamp types or bases specified between other brands. Specify a brand or type of lamp in the fixture and the lamp types can be looked into.)
Scoops & Cycs (Again, there is a wide variation of lamp types and brands available. In general a frosted lamp will be more effective in open faced instruments than clear ones.)

#### Reggie

##### Member
Re: Ushio lamp information

While this is not a chart of what lamp works best with what fixture, the Ushio website has a good pdf of their lamps and the specifications. I found it to be worth printing. I have not found anything similar at Osram's website.

Armed with the lamp model number you are currently using, you can find an alternate bulb which may be brighter, last longer, or cheper.

http://www.ushio.com/uai_intro.htm

#### ship

##### Senior Team Emeritus
Just some cautions about the Ushio catalogs and specifications:

The only real problem with the Ushio catalogs is that the data from one cut sheet to the next do not match up. Print out a few of them and compare each lamp. You can have two catalogs that were published within a month of each other and the data is not the same between them. Plus as with all companies, the data does change year to year and catalog to catalog. No it's not every lamp and that's the problem, you don't know which ones have and have not changed. That and there are typos abound in all printed or PDF catalogs. It also frequently takes time to list new lamps on a website - up to a year, such as with the GE/Thorn CYX 2400 lamp that's almost two years since it came to market and is still not on the website. If you need info such as on the Color Command lamp, and the manufacturer help person is in a good mood plus they have the data, they can fax it to you as an option also.

As a rule, as soon as a new catalog comes out, I have to go thru the catalog line by line and update my specs list for each lamp published noting ones that are missing from the new catalog or have changed by pre-highlighting all the old lamps so I can track ones that are absent from the catalog. I have been doing this for about 5 years now with every catalog published from LTI to PEC including the name brands. I have all Ushio catalogs published since they came out including a 2" thick stack of individual cut sheets for their lamps. The most accurate catalog from Ushio is not published yet. Their 2003 pricing catalog has lots of changes in it's limited specifications listed to that of any of their PDF catalogs. Ushio is working on both a new catalog and a more interactive - like the other guys website that will let them update lamps individually.

Sometimes the differences in specs are drastic such as differences between the Philips Euro catalog and that of the US catalog. Than I note two lamps with one noted with a question mark expecially if it's a misprint.

In other words, of the Ushio catalogs available on line, it's going to give you a basic set of data for somewhere in the neighborhood of what the lamp currently puts out, and Ushio is different from the rest in that you can access an entire catalog as opposed to the others that you have to go item by item. Thorn has a really old catalog similar to that. On the other hand, it's easier to update something that's individually put into the system than going back over old PDF doccuments such as with Ushio's current differences in HPL lamps as opposed to how they will have been published in the stage and studio catalog about three years ago.

As for catalogs, all you have to do is call or contact each of the manufacturers and ask for a catalog. You can also print up the on-line screen from each. Say you are looking for info on a BTN and what's best. Go to GE, Wiko, Ushio, Philips, and Osram/Sylvania and with the exception of the Ushio catalog where you are best off finding the newest PDF on that lamp, the rest you can search for the lamp and get the specs. From that data you would find that Osram has a higher color temperature but less output, GE and Philips have high output but a lower color temperature with Ushio and Wiko listing both the lower color temperature and lower output. That's based off the most recent info given I don't think I finished downloading that info out of the Osram catalog yet so it might have been a misprint in having the high color temperature and it might be back to normal now.

This is all given the published test specifications. Differing lot numbers, differing lamps etc. plus it's data that at times can be hard to tell the differences in with lamps. Put that Osram BTN in a Fresnel next to a GE BTN and have them both on stage next to each other. Given a 1,500K color temperature and 600 Lumen difference you should be able to tell the difference, but I'm never surprised not to. Since the published spec is all there is to work with however, that's the best info available when balanced against cost. If the Ushio lamp is more expensive than the Osram lamp, and it's data says it's more dim, than the Osram lamp would be more cost effective. If it is a replacement lamp, you are usually best off going with the same brand or at least one matching up in specification to assure the same look out of the lamp. If cost is the major factor and you are not as accurate in the look as to necessitate a few hundred possible lumens than the Wiko lamp will probably be cheapest.

For catalogs, I have already inserted a lot of manufacturer links into the database and one of these days I'll get back to the rest.

#### lxdeptnz

##### Member
Ship, what wattage tungsten lamp is approximately equivilent to a Phillips MSD250/2 discharge lamp?
Do you think a mover (a Mac250, say) is equal to a 1K lamp? a 2K lamp?
I know optics are important too, but just wondering.
Thanks
David

#### ship

##### Senior Team Emeritus
Not possible for a filament lamp to have the same color temperature as a arc source short of color correction gel up or down or getting a arc source lamp with a more incandescent color temperature. There is some color corrected halogen lamps on the market that have extreme color temperature, but none in the stage and studio line. Unless you have a xenon capsule or MR-16 lamp fixture, it’s not possible.

On the Mac 250 fixture, it’s not possible to find a lamp low enough in color temperature but you can get custom filters to lower it’s color temperature. Available color temperatures of lamps that would work in the fixture range from 6,000°K to 8,500°K - specifically 6,000°K, 6,700°K, 6,800°K, 7,800°K, 8,300°K and 8,500°K.

The most common Philips MSD 250/2 is either 8,500°K or 8,300°K dependant upon which catalog you are looking at. I’m also noting that some similar fixtures by other brands are also able to mount a 200w lamp. If it’s possible for the Mac 250 to do so also, if you can find a discontinued Philips MSD 200 or Koto DIS-2H lamp, they would be at 5,600°K which is easy for a tungsten lamp to be color corrected into the neighborhood of.. Otherwise, the Osram HSD 250/60 or Philips MSA 300 would probably be as low as you can get in 6,000°K lamps. I might look towards a MSD 250 or Amglo AMHK 250 lamp, both specified for 6,800°K, than color correct my halogen lamps for 7,200°K with gel.

You than use say Rosco #3202 Full Blue 3,200°K to 5,500°K color correction gel to get the halogen lamps up to somewhere around either the discontinued 200w arc source or as close as possible to to the 6,000°K lamps. 500°K difference between a color corrected halogen and a HSD 250/60 should be fairly not noticeable. The other option is to dichroic filter change your moving light lamps to tungsten. Roscosun CTO #3407 for instance will change 5,500°K to 2,900°K. Given your real lamp in use is 6,000°K, you would now be at 3,400°K in color temperature for the moving light which should be close enough to match up to the normally 3,200°K halogen lamps. Rosco and other companies also make dichroic filters that can be installed into moving lights. You can use the Rosco Gel color and be assured that they can re-produce it with a glass dichroic filter, or even specify what color change you wish for and have it custom mixed. Such filters are not cheap but often worth it.

Here is why you can’t just get a better lamp in either fixture:

Filament Lamps:
The effect of voltage on the light output of a lamp is ±1% voltage over the rated amount stamped on the lamp, gives 3.1/2% more light or Lumens output but in the case of higher voltage, decreases the life by 13% and vise a versa.
Do not operate quartz Projection lamps at over 110% of their design voltage as rupture might occur. GE Projection, Ibid p.13

A 5% change in the voltage applied to the lamp results in:
-Halving or doubling the lamp life
-a 15% change in luminous flux
-an 8% change in power (Wattage)
-a 3% change in current (Amperage)
-a 2% change in color temperature (0.4% change per1% voltage.)
Osram Technology and Application Tungsten halogen Low Voltage Lamps Photo Optics, p21

Tungsten = Tungsten filaments change electrical energy to radiant energy. The light generated results from the filament being resistance heated to a temperature high enough to produce visible light. Filaments can not be operated in air see seal and vacuum. Tungsten is used for the filaments because of its low rate of evaporation at temperatures of incandescence and its high melting point 3,655°K. There are grades of tungsten purity and different grain structures. Only the highest grade of an elongated grain structure guarantees maximum life and reliability during shock and vibration. Heat treatment of the tungsten filaments is one of the most critical factors in lamp manufacturing.. Proper heat treatment prevents filament sag, abnormal coil shorting or premature breakage.
Tungsten Halogen Lamps = Halogen Lamps are tungsten fliament incandescent lamps filled with an inert gas (usually krypton or xenon to insulate the filament and decrease heat losses) to which a trace of halogen vapor (Iodine/Bromine) has been added. Tungsten vaporized from the filament wire is intercepted by the halogen gas before it reaches the wall of the bulb, and is returned to the filament. Therefore, the glass bulb stays clean and the light output remains constant over the entire life of the lamp. (p33, Sylvania Lamp & Ballast Product Catalog 2002)
Halogen Lamp - A short name for the tungsten-halogen lamp. Halogen lamps are high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gasses such as iodine or bromine which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. A high-temperature chemical reaction involving tungsten and the halogen gas recycles evaporated particles of tungsten back onto the filament surface. Also called a Quartz lamp, though this is a term for the higher melting temperature glass enclosure used on halogen lamp

Xenon Lamp - High output halogen lamps using Xenon filler instead of krypton producing a luminous flux up to 10% higher; with otherwise identical lamp data. (Xenophot - Osram)
Xenophot = Premium Osram Brand of lamp using Xenon Filler producing a luminous flux up to 10% higher with otherwise identical lamp data.

The lamp can also operate at higher heat/voltage often than because of the replenishment of the filament to a certain extent - normally 3,200°K. After that, the effects of the gas in resisting the burning off of the filament, and it’s replenishment greatly effects expected lamp life. This also dependant upon the gas used in the halogen gas mixture, Xenon while more expensive will allow for greater temperatures than Krypton for instance. For a dependable lamp, you would tend to wish that it’s filament is burning at least slightly below it’s melting temperature. 3,500°K Is about the best I have seen for some low voltage lamps in non-color corrected lamps. Such lamps are also very short in life.

Color Temperature = Originally, a term used to describe the “whiteness” of incandescent lamp light. Color temperature is directly related to the physical temperature of the filament in incandescent lamps so the Kelvin (absolute) temperature is used to describe color temperature. For discharge lamps where no hot filament is involved, the term “correlated color temperature” is used to indicate that the light appears “as if” the discharge lamp is operating at a giving color temperature. More recently, the term “chromaticity” has been used in place of color temperature. Chromacity is expressed either in Kelvins (K) or as “X” and “Y” coordinated on the CIE Standard Chrom-aticity Diagram. Although it may not seem sensible, a high color temperature (K) describes a visually cooler, bluer light source. Typical color temperatures are 2,800°K (incandescent), 3,000°K (halogen), 4,100°K (cool white or sp41 fluorescent), and 5,000°K (daylight-simulating fluorescent colors such as Chroma 50 and SPX 50.
Unit of measurement: Kelvin (K) the color temperature os a light source is defined in comparison with a “black body radiator” and plotted on what is known as the “Planckian curve.” The higher the temperature of this “black body radiator” the greater the blue component in the spectrum and the smaller the red component. An incandescent lamp with a warm white light, for example, has a color temperature of 2,700°K, whereas a daylight has a color temperature of 6,000°K. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999
Light color = The light color of a lamp can be neatly defined in terms of color temperature. There are three main categories here: warm<3,300°K, intermediate 3,300 to 5,000°K, and daylight > 5,000°K. Despite having the same light color, lamps may have very different color rendering properties owing to the spectral composition of the light. - Osram Photo-Optic Lighting Products, 1999

Neodymium = neodymium lenses that make their light whiter than standard halogen lamps. The white light of a Daylight Plus floodlight makes objects stand out more clearly and crisply than they would with a standard halogen PAR or incandescent floodlights. OSRAM SYLVANIA first introduced in early 2003. Offering a unique patent-pending, sky-blue coating that simulates natural light, the Daylight family began with A-line, 3-Ways and Globe shapes and then expanded to include directional lamps for downlighting, track lights and outdoor fixtures. Daylight products are available at retailers nationwide. - Osram 1/21/04 Press Release

Quartz = A type of glass used for halogen, HMI, and other high output / high temperature type lamps. This type of glass construction is used extensively on Stage and Studio lamps. Quartz glass is more expensive but has better reliability and virtually constant color temperatures. They also are capable of withstanding higher temperatures without deforming or breaking which allows for a smaller lamps envelope in thickness and diameter in closeness to the heat source. Quartz glass is also able to support coatings such as Infrared and Dichroic coatings used to prevent the more harmful un-seen rays of light from leaving the lamp and keeps both the fixture’s lenses and beam cooler. This also allows for a hotter filament temperature without extra energy used to achieve it. When Halogen gas is combined with Quartz gas, a hotter filament is also able to become smaller and more point source. For incandescent lamps, soft lime glass is used because the soft glass is easy to work with and will telerate temperatures up to 350°C.

The future of filament and arc source lamps:
Liquid Cooled Xenon Short Arc Lamps = Perkin Elmer’s high-powerered liquid cooled xenon lamps were developed after years of experience in designing, developing, and manufacturing high intensity xenon and mercury xenon lamps and lighting systems. Liquid cooled xenon lamps combine high-luminance, short arc gaps, and maintenance free operation. The lamps are designed for DC operation which affords greater stability and longer lamp life. DC operation offers many advantaged, including longer lamp life, enhanced performance during start-up (instant ignition,) improved arc stability, and shorter arc gaps for precise focusing and optical efficiency. Applications for Perkin Elmer’s liquid cooled xenon lamps vary widely. The lamps can be used in large-screen motion picture projectors similar to IMAX, and in solar simulations for studies in plant growth, particle degradation, heatshield threshold studies for spacecraft, solar cell research. In addition, water cooled xenon lamps are used in the lighting of Space Shuttle launches and landings at both the Kennedy Space Center and Edwards Airforce Base. - 1998-2001 Perkin Elmer

#### lxdeptnz

##### Member
Fair enough. I realise that the colour temps are different. What I wanted to know, which I found out from a lamp supply company, was that a MSD 250 lamp is approximately equal to a 1kW parcan. Even though the colour temp of the discharge lamp is higher, so it's whiter and hence appears brighter.

Thanks
David

#### ship

##### Senior Team Emeritus
lxdeptnz said:
Ship, what wattage tungsten lamp is approximately equivilent to a Phillips MSD250/2 discharge lamp?
Do you think a mover (a Mac250, say) is equal to a 1K lamp? a 2K lamp?
I know optics are important too, but just wondering.
Thanks
David

If of any help, I might have asked the same question six years ago. Such questions are not less than one should think should be a simple and other than very complex solution. Such a question is what seperates the high school from the professional designer, and even than, that solution to the question than is what seperates those designers that know the minute details in changing them from those that design around them - knowing or not about the detail. Your question while it might seem at this point very complex and short sighted in not understanding how to ask it is no less than anyone else no matter the training might wonder about also. Others perhaps less the real designer in not asking just assume or design around what might seem not similar.

I think that some study into lamps would be helpful because there is some confusion on your part. Read the above Osram "Low Voltage Tungsten Halogen Lamp..." PDF manual off the website. Go to the Sylvania/Osram website and do a search for a lamp such as a EVC. Such searches are somewhat easy if in the right part of the website but otherwise complex. Sylvania not Osram part of the website. Look at the lamp data as an excellent lamp, than scroll down to the further information section of the info. Click on the above title and print it out. Simple as that and you now have for free one of the most respected texts in the industry on lamp design. As long as you allow time to study instead of just speed read, you will learn a lot from it. Lamps are one big balancing factor in choosing.

The above posting takes care of the color temperature question I hope. Now for the other misunderstandings.

Wattage has no or limited effect specific to color temperature. You can design a lamp that has a higher color temperature in trading off other things for it, but it's for the most part not stock off the shelf for a Stage and Studio lamp that's already balanced fixture to fixture and lamp to lamp to the 3K or 3.2K color temperature. Invent the next fixture and have the lamp developed around the fixture wishes as you please. See the HES "Color Command" lamp used as a lamp invented around a fixture needs and as better than other more normal GLD/HX-754 lamps it far exceeds in output. Than the VL-1K lamp and others or even the HPL and HX-600 lamps in lamp history as opposed to EHD/EHG around the S-4 and Shakespeare for lamps designed as best at the time for the technology available. The HX-600 lamp while inefficient by todays standards was monumental in technology by 1990's standards above standard halogen lamp technology. (I smell easy and interesting term papers here.) Look to the "Widget of the year" for somewhere between 1990 and 1992 for a really good article on something that in development really did change the world. I got while in college one of these lamps before it came to market and was as with the HPR lamp, suitibly impressed in a similar pre-market testing. Perhaps I'm an easy sale - not.

Until than, work with what's available. You will note in study, that a HPL 375w/C lamp has the same voltage, color temperature, and life as that of a HPL 750w/C lamp. The only things changed are wattage rating of the lamp and luminous output correspondingly. Something changed and correspondindingly something is the after effect. That's standard in lamp design to keep the color temperature of a halogen lamp a more or less happy medium that's a standard. It's also a standard that the lamp life is standard for a line of lamp. The HPL lamp could have perhaps had a higher color temperature, luminous output or lamp life - pick two of three given it's higher wattage, but two of three where chosen to stay the same thus only the third was changed. You can change two of three characteristics in output/life also but would not be able to do as much to two as to one. This data can be changed but is not for the most part available in most instances in a stock lamp that is similar to others in a line of them.

While it's possible to gain a higher color temperature lamp thru various means or balances, and adding wattage can in lamp design bolster it as opposed to other trade offs' Voltage plays a more easy role in this balance. So yes, a larger lamp could have a higher color temperature potentially, but you would need to seriously trade that off for either lamp life or luminous output if not both normally at least given other technologies will play a factor. All a balancing of what's desired in the lamp by way of design.

Such technologies like Xenon filles or even as simple but in reality very hard to install, add a internal reflector to a FLK lamp and you get 15 to 20% more efficiency on a HPR lamp as only one thing possible. You can do anything with a lamp up to 10% of it's design voltage, or by design up to the +3.6K worth of color temperature maximum of the tungsten filament. Given these two factors in addition to some form of other than flash bulb life on the other hand you get what you get with the technology of the day.

Will a tungsten filament really get up to 8.5K in color temperature? Not in a tungsten filament lamp at least while it's still a resister. Filament going supernova on the other hand once broken, who knows what that flash of momentary arc is for color temperature. Again a trade off in lamp life verses output still, much less internal lamp pressures exceeding that of the design size of the bulb, type of glass and various details of how the lamp as a fixture onto itself gets it's power into the vacuum or +AU pressure tube. Blue Pinch or what ever it's name, purple UV reflective paint on the lead in wires and you also have certain design flaws with the lamp itself in normalizing pressures and the effects of the reaction not to date able to compensate for.

This all given in "equal to" we are still talking color temperature or how white/blue the light appears to be. "Appears to be" a major factor here because you can install a 7.2K fluorescent lamp in a room and it's still not going to put out more actual light than a 2.8K color temperature lamp, just appear much brighter. Color Rendering Index also than plays a factor in arc source lamps in where their spikes of light output refrence to a known factor such as candle, incandescent or daylight sun lit beams of light compare. Even in a arc lamp often if you are at "incandescent" color temperature, it still might be spiking in light output at the wrong and opposing coordinates as very much not similar to that of a incandescent source of light. Don't want to spend time reading a book under a mercury vapor source of light, yet it often might be the same color temperature and even better output.

Equal to otherwise on a output/Luminous Output scale of a Mac 250 fixture should be by lamp used between 16,000 and 1,850 lumens "initially". Initlally being a recognized scale for tested data and not realistic to either halogen, incandescent or arc source as to what it might be at a day later or ten years later in output. Even look into flament notching and the real halogen effect of re-depositing the filament spent not to where it's most warn away, but instad to that part that's most hot. Big difference, a lamp does not re-plentish itself to where it's needed in the filament always, instead it might still wear as per a incandescent lamp. See notes on low voltage halogen lamps in this factor much less that internal gass even attacking the lead in wires and pinch seal in high output lamps. Oh' so many factors in design of a lamp.

Dependant upon the 1Kw filament lamp looked into - let's say a FEL, it than ranges between 27,000 and 27,500 Lumens initially. FEL lamp is not the most efficient of light sources but it's common. Such a lamp easily out-classes that of a MSD 250/2 series of lamp cloan in luminous output. 33,000 Lumens at 120v but 15 hours for a Osram #64573 or #64576 Gx-6.35 based lamp. A GE ANSI coded EBB lamp will do 33,500 Lumens for 12 hours given a G-22 base. Noting a balance here between output and one might think also color temperature and life? Some of these wil in fact get up to 3.4K in color temperature for as long as they last. Think old time camera flash bulb. Sort of a one time use type of lamp, and it would tend to have an exreme output and color temperature. Operate such a flash bulb at it's real rated voltage and it might last a long time but would signifigantly drop in output.

This just 1Kw lamps bi-pin lamps. Move into a 1.2Kw lamp and you have some serious lamps here in this survey amongst other wattage types. Other filament lamps of varying types in style and wattage/voltage balances will often also have similar expected results in being higher output than that of a Mac 250 fixture's output at the lamp source. Not that difficult to out light a 250w lamp no matter the type given 1Kw as a maximum for output opposed to it. A FEL more easily matches up to a MSR 400 type of lamp.

For matching up output and not speaking of color temperature since it's a different thing, output alone, a Mac 250 in thinking as compared to Leko, comperable to a average grade of FLK/HX-600 575w/115v & HPL 575w/C lamp on the low side or HPR lamp still 575w/115v lamp on the high side. This all as outclassed by just about any 750w lamp on the high side. Not optically speaking of course as a seperate issue. Remember how many will compare a FLK/HX-600 to a FEL lamp as being brighter or the same. It's not really the same. While the 115v verses 120v rating of the lamp will bolster it's output and color temperature, the FLK lamp more balanced in output and color more evenly matches up with a EHG if not slightly brighter on some scale once you factor out the voltage difference. On the other hand the EHG is a 2k life lamp and the FLK only 300 hour. How has voltage on the simple side effected this lamp than?

In lighting the stage, you need in lamps to seperate what color the stage appears to be from how much light is on it just as you would with gel and wattage or number of fixtures. While a brighter lit scene in colors might require less wattage to make it appear as bright as opposed to a night scene, how much actual light is coming out of the fixture is a seperate matter. What appears bright is not what is luminated to the same extent. They really are seperate issues. Can you really just install a follow spot in the house and expect that given it's higher color temperature hopefully as an arc source, that it in color temperature will also light the rest of the stage? Let's go xenon arc lamp in color temperature. In lighting the full stage would it have any more effect on the rest of the stage or that area lit other than in being very bright over that of a Leko of a similar beam angle? On the other hand, given a 1Kw filament lamp at times will have better output but less color temperature, it might be dim but it's certainly doing more work.

Optics are optics and fixture efficiency. You can do a fixture efficiency/lamp light loss type of study also and at least in a Leko to a moving light, it might be almost similar in la ess importance in given the same for the most part type of reflectors and lenses at some point being used in both fixtures. The moving light thus given it's not trying to put light out thru it's various effects wheels with their own losses as opposed to similar but less complex changes in a Leko. It's going to balance out.

Hope that this all gets some form of point across in design and use. Wiggle lights are a science for design around I did not have to learn in school. Good and bad in that we more concentrated on getting the look right than having to waste time on explaing how another tool worked. Only so many hours in a day, what's better the look or knowing how to use more gear? That at some point does become important either way, but one is easier to learn later.

You will find that the Ace/True Value harware store customer complains less that that of the goliath Menards/Home Depot/Lowes/D1Y customer. Such people don't expect as much from the smaller store. On the other hand they expect the "helpful hardware man" in expertise over some zit poked stock boy person at the other place. In reality it's the same often and frequently in lack of knowledge but still the intent is similar. Learn the lighting, than shop around to the other tools on the market not studied yet.