This transduction can be accomplished in a few different ways depending on the microphone.
The working part of the microphone is called the CAPSULE. Each different capsule has a different polar pattern and other characteristics. These include the type of transducer, frequency range, etc.
Examples of polar patterns include: (will include images...eventually)
Cardioid - A "heart shaped" pattern extending in front of the microphone and rejecting sound from behind.
Super-Cardioid - A pattern similar to the cardioid that has more rejection to the sides. It also has a pronounced front lobe, and a small rear lobe
Omnidirectional - Picks up audio in all directions.
Figure Eight - No pickup from front or rear, equal lobes to each side.
Shotgun - A specialized supercardioid with an extremely narrow pattern, useful for picking up a particular voice or instrument from a group.
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